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Day 18 Notes: Retirement Planning

June 20, 2013 by  

Off to see the world.

Retirement Planning

Most people don’t retire. Historically, there was no such thing. Today, it’s a luxury fee can afford, if they are healthy.

Let’s try to make an outline:

Retirement

  • Stop employment completely
  • Semi-retirement = reduce hours
  • Recent idea
    • Not historically common
    • Right of the worker?
  • History
    • 1881, William the First, German Emperor
      • Bismarck’s urging
    • 1889, Bismarck implemented it
      • Bismarck was 74
      • Set the age at 70
    • 1916, German lowered to 65
    • 1934, US Railroad Retire System
      • passed by Congress
      • Age 65
    • 1935, Social Security
      • Age 65
  • Why retire?
    • Pension
    • Disabled
    • Legal limits
    • Spouse
      • If wife retires, husband does
    • Wealth?
      • Inheritance only slightly more likely to retire
      • Don’t need to; lots of vacations
    • Health
      • Good health, work
      • Poor health, retire
    • People retire as early as the can
      • Even if working longer has higher benefits
    • Early Retirement
      • Lots of money
    • Can’t find a job
  • How spend time
    • Volunteer
    • Travel
    • Grey nomads & Snow birds
    • Grandchildren
    • Hobby
    • Sports
  • 6 lifestyle choices
    • Work full-time
    • Work part-time
    • Leisure activity
    • Variety of leisure activities
    • Return to part-time work
    • Return to full-time work
  • Concerns
    • Rising cost, flat income
    • Health
    • Location
    • Where live
      • Retirement community
      • Retirement home
      • Care home
      • Convalescent home
      • Rest home
      • Intermediate care
        • Send back home
      • Skilled nursing facility
      • Nursing home
        • Doctor & nurses

Depression

  • Major Depressive Disorder
    • Lasts for weeks at a time
    • Episodic
  • Symptoms
    • Lack energy & pleasure
    • Helpless
    • Sad
    • Little pleasure from sex or food
    • Trouble concentrating
    • Trouble sleeping
    • Suicidal thoughts
    • Thoughts of suicide or death
    • Don’t enjoy usual activities
    • Feel worthless, sad, guilty
    • Pull away from friends
  • Findings
    • React normally to sad images
    • React normally to fearful images
    • Rarely smile are happy images
    • Rarely laugh at jokes
    • Decreased response to likely reward
  • Range
    • Long-term depression
      • More common to have episodes
    • Periods of normal mood
    • First episode longest
      • More intense first episode
      • Easier to start another
  • Causes
    • 1. Genetics
      • Early-onset (before age 30)
      • More relatives with depression
      • Bulimia, irritable bowel syndrome
      • Alcohol or marijuana abuse
      • Anxiety & migraines
      • ADHD & OCD
      • Late onset (after 45 to 50)
      • Relatives have circulatory problems
    • 2. Infections
      • Viral infections in farm animals?
      • Borna disease; 1/3 have it
      • Infectious neurotropic virus
    • 3. Estrogen
      • More women than men
      • Postpartum depression
      • 20% of mothers
      • Recover quickly
    • 4. Brain Abnormalities
      • Hemisphere Dominance
      • Decreased activity in left hemisphere
      • Increased activity in right prefrontal cortex
  • Treatments
    • Untreated
    • Recover within few months
    • Episodes
  • Suicide
    • Elderly

Parkinson’s Disease

  • Symptoms
    • First symptom is loss of smell
    • Slow movements
    • Resting tremor
    • Rigidity
    • Difficulty initiating movement
    • Cognitive deficits
    • Depression (no outbursts)
  • But can follow visual cues
    • Follow parade
    • Climb stairs
    • “Step on the cracks” (sidewalk)
  • Incidence
    • 1–2% of those over 65
    • 50% more men than women
  • Progression
    • Gradual progressive death of neurons
    • Especially in substantia nigra
  • Substantia nigra
    • When over 45
    • Neuron loss of 1% per year
    • Most have enough to spare
    • When reach 20-30% of normal, Parkinsonian symptoms begin
  • Early onset
    • Probably genetic
  • Late onset
    • More common
    • Not genetic
  • Chances decrease if
    • Drink coffee
    • Smoke
    • Decaffeinated coffee & nicotine free cigarettes work just as well
      • Reduce damage to mitochondria?
  • Progressive death of neurons
    • Gradual
    • Decrease in dopamine
    • Decreased neural activity
    • Atrophy
    • Cell death
  • Treatment
    • L-Dopa Treatment
    • Precursor to dopamine
      • Crosses BBB
      • Hope it converts to dopamine
      • Not prevent continued loss
        • may contribute to neuron death
      • Harmful side effects
      • Effective in early stages?
      • Could do harm?
      • Doesn’t stop the disease
    • Other Therapies
      • Antioxidant drugs
      • Dopamine agonists
      • Glutamate antagonists

Hardiness

  • Suzanne C. Kobasa
  • Personality style
  • Pattern of characteristics
  • Healthy vs. ill under stress
  • 3 related general dispositions
  • Help resist stress
    • Commitment disposition
      • Involved in life
      • Curious about world
      • Interested in other people
    • Challenge disposition
      • Believe change in normal
      • Stability is rare
      • Look for personal growth opportunities
    • Control disposition
      • Believe you an influence world
      • Similar to Rotter’s internal locus of control
  • Generalized mode of functioning?
  • Sympathetic nervous system?
  • Change in motivation?
  • Cognitive reframing?
  • Coping style?
  • Self-efficacy?

 

 

 

 

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