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Day 19 Notes: Aging & Memory

June 20, 2013 by  

Aging and memory

Aging & Memory

As people age, they become quite concerned about their memories. Includes a discussion of memory systems and how they work.

Let’s try to make an outline:

  • Memory Systems
    • Sensory Memory
      • Buffers for vision & audition
      • Simplest kind of memory
      • Iconic memory ½ second
      • Echoic memory 3-4 sec
        • Replay tape
    •  Procedural Memory
      • What you do
    • Practical Memory
      • Everyday Memory
      • Do chestnut trees or oak trees lose leaves earlier in autumn?
      • Do horses in fields stand with head or tail to the wind?
      • In what direction do the seeds of an apple point?
      • What’s on penny; recall 3 of 8 critical features
    • Prospective Memory
      • Remember what going to do
      • Sensitive to elderly
      • Characteristics
        • Structure of normal day
        • Cueing effect (read story, remind to do)
        • Embarrassed when system fails
        • Social importance
      • “When” memory
        • do this at that time
      • Low information content
        • not a great deal of detail
      • One of most sensitive memory parts to aging
      • Easier to remember appointment with others
      • Harder to do object tasks
        • Collect a document
    • Wilkins & Baddeley
      • Simulate taking pills 4x a day
      • press button on little box
      • 2 groups:
        • Good free recall of lists
        • Bad free recall of lists
      • Good verbal memory group was less accurate = “absentminded professor effect”
    • 2 types of memory demands (Ellis, 1988)
      • Steps = anytime by end of day
        • Recall periodically over day
      • Pulses = do at specific time
        • Either remember it once or aware of all day
        • More likely to write down
        • Judged more important
        • Easier to remember
    • Short-Term Memory
      • STM
      • Working memory
      • Primary memory
      • Active memory
      • Capacity
        • 7 plus or minus 2 items
        • 7 plus or minus 2 chunks
        • Varies with type of info to recall
    • Long-Term Memory
    • Two types
      • 1. Declarative Memory
        • Conscious memories
        • A. Episodic memory (events)
        • B. Semantic memory (dictionary)
      • 2. Procedural Memory
        • Playing sports
        • Using tools
        • Dancing
        • Doing
  • Stroke
    • Transient Ischemic Attack
      • Less than 24 hours
      • Stroke symptoms
      • Unless you die = stroke
    • What is a stroke
      • Blood flow disruption
      • Brain’s version of a heart attack
      • Cells die
      • Brain attack
    • 1. Ischemic Stroke
      • Blocked-Clogged Arteries
      • A. Thrombotic stroke
        • Blocking narrow arteries
      • B. Cerebral embolism (stroke
        • Clot breaks off & travel to brain
    • 2. Hemorrhagic stroke
      • Weak blood vessel in brain burst
      • Blood leaks into brain
      • Two types
        • Aneurysms = ballooning region
        • Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs
          • bleeding from cluster of abnormally formed blood vessel
    • Risk Factor
      • High blood pressure
        • Biggest risk facto
      • Family history of stroke
      • Diabetes
      • Artial fibrillation
        • Irregular, rapid heart rate
      • Narrow arteries in other parts of body
        • Legs
        • Heart
      • Too much
        • Food, alcohol, smoking, drugs
        • Birth control pills, in women over 35
    • Symptoms
      • Depends which part of brain
      • Symptoms appear rapidly (usual)
      • Can get gradually worse, gradually better or on and off
        • Difficult to diagnose
      • Coma, unconscious, sleepy
      • Confused
      • Clumsy
      • Headache
        • Starts suddenly
        • Hurts most when lying flat
        • Hurts when you cough or move
      • Changes in sensory input (vision, hearing, taste, pain)
      • Changes in output (writing, speaking, walking)
    • After the stroke
      • Most people need rehab
      • 50% have arm or hand problems
  • Alzheimer’s
    • Progressive disease
    • Symptoms get worse with time
    • Symptoms
      • Inappropriate emotional response
      • Decline in intellect
      • Confused thinking
      • Memory loss
      • Repeated questioning
      • Inappropriate emotional response
      • Violence
    • Memory
      • Better procedural vs declarative
      • Better implicit vs explicit
        • Acquire new skills but not remember learning them
    • Age related
      • Likelihood increases with age
      • Strikes 50% of those over 85
    • Genetic components
      • Person with Down’s syndrome
        • (3 copies of chromosome 21)
        • Always acquire Alzheimer’s in middle age
      • Early onset
        • chromosome 1 & 14
      • Late onset
        • chromosome 10 & 19
    • Environmental component
      • 50% no relatives with disease
    • Yoruba people of Nigeria
      • high-risk genes
      • low incidence
      • maybe due to diet?
      • low-calorie, low fat, low salt diet
    • Brain proteins fold abnormally
      • Clump together
      • Interfere with neuronal activity
      • Amyloid protein
        • Cause plaque between neurons
      • Apolipoprotein E
        • Causes cell loss
        • Prevents plague removal
      • Tau protein
    • Tangles in cell bodies
    • Treatment to improve memory
      • Increase glucose & insulin
      • Acetylcholine activator drugs
      • Diet rich in antioxidants?
      • Block Aß42 production, inoculate with small amounts of Aß42

 

 

 

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