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2 Terms: Science of Change

June 22, 2013 by  

  • age-graded influences = choices tend to happen at particular ages (marriage, retirement)
  • applied research
  • basic research
  • behavior modification = Thorndike, focus is on changing behaviors
  • behaviorism = reaction to psychoanalysis; emphasis on observable behaviors
  • case history
  • case study
  • causal modeling
  • cause-effect
  • chance
  • characteristics of a theory
  • chronosystem = Bronfenbrenner, cumulative lifetime experiences
  • clinical interview
  • clinical method (case study) = interviews and observations of an individual, infer broader application
  • cognitive-developmental theory = emphasis is on how thinking changes during development
  • cohort effects
  • conclusions
  • constructs
  • contexts = environment within which events occur
  • continuous development = opposite of stage theories, emphasis is on gradual ongoing changes
  • controls
  • correlation
  • correlation coefficient
  • correlational design = experiment without manipulation of independent variable
  • criterion
  • cross-sectional design = study people from different age groups at same time
  • cross-sectional studies
  • data
  • data collection methods
  • delayed treatment
  • dependent variable
  • descriptions
  • developmental cognitive neuroscience = interdisciplinary study of neural changes during development
  • developmental science = scientific study of changes over the entire lifespan
  • discontinuous development = stage theories of development
  • documentation
  • ecological systems theory = Bronfenbrenner; influence of environmental systems & sub-systems
  • emic perspective
  • ethnography
  • ethology = scientific study of animal behavior
  • etic perspective
  • evolutionary developmental psychology = comparative psychology, focus on how behaviors are evolutionarily advantageous; study genetic and ecological mechanisms
  • exosystem = Bronfenbrenner, external influences on microsystems, unemployment, etc.
  • experimental design
  • experimentation
  • explanations
  • group data
  • history-graded influences = correlated with wars, famines and epidemics
  • independent variable
  • inferences
  • information processing = emphasis on active processing of info, not just reacting to it
  • internally consistent
  • inter-rater reliability
  • interval scale
  • interviews
  • leading questions
  • lifespan perspective = focus is on whole life, not focusing only on childhood or adolescencce
  • longitudinal design = measuring the same people over time
  • longitudinal studies
  • macrosystem = Bronfenbrenner, cultural norms, political conditions
  • magnitude
  • mesosystem = Bronfenbrenner, interactions between mircosystems
  • meta-analysis
  • microsystem = Bronfenbrenner, where you live, family, peers
  • model
  • Morgan’s Cannon
  • naturalistic observation
  • nature–nurture controversy = either-or argument for heredity or environment
  • necessary
  • negative correlation
  • nominal scale
  • nonnormative influences = things that happen to one person
  • normal curve
  • normative approach = use normal curve to describe development by what most can do at given age
  • observations
  • observer effect
  • open-ended questions
  • operational definition
  • ordinal scale
  • organizing frameworks
  • outcome measure
  • paired observations
  • participant observation
  • positive correlation
  • practice effects
  • predictor
  • properties
  • psychoanalytic perspective = Freud’s psychodynamic theory of unconscious motivations
  • psychosexual theory = Freud, stages of childhood development: oral, anal, phallic, latency & genital
  • qualitative
  • quantitative
  • questionnaires
  • random assignment
  • random selection
  • rank scale
  • ratio scale
  • repeated measures
  • replication
  • resilience = ability to recover from negative influence
  • scientific method
  • script
  • self-report
  • sensitive period = critical period, phase when a small dose can cause great damage
  • sequential designs
  • shared variance
  • sign
  • significance
  • small number of assumptions
  • social learning theory = Bandura, people learn in a social context, a reciprocal interaction
  • sociocultural theory = Vygotsky, develop first on social level, then on individual levels
  • split-plot
  • stage = assumes everyone goes through same phases in the same order
  • structured interview
  • structured observation
  • subject loss
  • sufficient
  • summarize facts
  • symmetrical
  • systematic underrepresentation
  • testable hypotheses
  • theory
  • useful
  • variables
  • verification
  • zero correlation

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