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Infants

August 11, 2012 by · 1 Comment 

Nursing, bottles and attachment

This is a confusing world I’ve just discovered.

Infants are amazing. Their heads are big, their brains are making thousands of connections per second, and their bodies are trying to catch up.

Here’s what is included in this lesson:

  • Attention & arousal
  • Infant intelligence
  • Consciousness
  • Hallmarks
  • Reflexes

Read chapter 5 of Berk’s Development Thru The Lifespan

Here are the resources you need:

CLUSTER

SLIDES

TERMS

[dropdown_box expand_text=” Terms To Know” show_more=”More” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • 200 words  & walking
  • 4000 words & share
  • accommodation = Piaget, adding to schema categories
  • adaptation = adjusting to environment
  • all-nothing
  • arousal
  • assimilation = Piaget, adding information to current schema
  • attention
  • autobiographical memory = episodic memory, what you did on summer vacation
  • babbling = repetitive consonant sounds, goes with sitting up, 6 months
  • Babinski’s reflex
  • Bauer’s reflex
  • central executive = cognitive process that coordinates all mental activity
  • child-directed speech (CDS) = parents give clear, exaggerated speech, helps learn language
  • circular reaction = repeat event on purpose, drop bottle accidently, do again on purpose
  • cognition
  • color vision
  • consciousness
  • contrast & complexity
  • cooing = first language-like sounds, goes with rolling over, 3 months old
  • core knowledge perspective = hypothetical innate knowledge systems
  • crawl & say “dada”
  • curves & patterns
  • deferred imitation = can recall & model behavior of model not there
  • developmental quotient (DQ) = infant intelligence tests, unreliable
  • developmentally appropriate practice = guidelines of proper child care services
  • doll eyes
  • expressive style of language = use language to talk about feelings
  • faces
  • fencing reflex
  • grasping reflex
  • habituation
  • hallmarks
  • Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) = checklist for home eval.
  • imprinting
  • inattention blindness
  • infant perception
  • infantile amnesia = inability to recall pre-verbal phase of life
  • infantile reflexes
  • intelligence quotient (IQ) = widely used predictor of school success
  • intentional behavior (goal-directed) = reaching-touching, solving simple problems
  • irreversible coma
  • joint attention = child & parent attend to same object
  • language acquisition device (LAD) = hypothetical innate language processor
  • laugh out loud
  • life-long reflexes
  • long-term memory = unknown capacity, less permanent than thought
  • Lorenz, Konrad
  • make-believe play = act out scenes, dress up, pretend cooking, being a monkey
  • mental representation = internal symbols that can be manipulated
  • mental strategies = well-practiced plans of how to achieve goals
  • Moro reflex
  • normal distribution = symmetrical distribution of population scores, chance
  • object permanence = Piaget, learning out of sight is not out of existence
  • organization = Piaget, development of cognitive representations
  • overextension = using Dog for all animals
  • parachute reflex
  • perception
  • prune sounds
  • recall = recollection from a cue; listing items
  • recognition = selecting from available choices; multiple choice items
  • referential style of language = use language to get objects
  • reflexes
  • reticular formation
  • rollover & coo
  • rooting reflex
  • scheme = Piaget, mental representation
  • sensorimotor stage = Piaget’s 1st stage of development, coordination of motor skills
  • sensory register = separate buffers for vision and hearing, disappears if not attended to
  • sit up & babble
  • sleep thru night
  • stand up & single words
  • standardization = basing test interpretation on the normal curve
  • startle response
  • stepping reflex
  • sucking reflex
  • telegraphic speech
  • underextension = use Dog for family pet but not other dogs
  • vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR)
  • violation-of-expectation method = facial expressions as dependent variable to surprise stimuli
  • visual acuity
  • working memory (short-term) = things currently focused on, keep active with rehearsal
  • zone of proximal development = Vygotsky, what can do without help & what can do with help

 

[/dropdown_box]

NOTES

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Notes” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • Consciousness includes:
    • Perception
    • Reflexes
    • Imprinting
    • Attention
    • Habituation
  • Infant Perception
    • Sensory systems are not fully developed at birth
    • Infant Abilities
    • Vision
      • Acuity
        • Can see about 9 inches away
      • Color
        • Neonates do not see blue well
        • By 2 months: normal color vision
    • Infants prefer:
      • Curves
      • Patterns over plain
    • Infants somewhat prefer:
      • High contrast
      • Larger patterns
      • Many objects
      • Moderate complexity
    • Infants strongly prefer:
      • Faces
        • 5-day old want face parts
        • 2 month old want parts in right places
  • Infants
    • 1st 2 years of life
    • before speech develops
    • cognition is not linguistic
  • Hallmarks
    • Newborn: sleep, eat & poop
      • sleep 16 hr day; eat 6-8 per day
    • 2 months: rollover and coo
      • laugh out loud
    • 3 months: sleep thru night
      • 12 pounds
    • 6 months: sit up & babble
      • baby food
      • “prune” sounds not in language
    • 9 months: crawl & say “dada”
      • maybe “mama”
      • small finely cut table food
    • 1 year: stand up & single words
      • drink from a cup
      • 50% can walk
    • 2 years old: 200 words & walk
      • telegraphic speech
    • 1st grade: 4000 words & share
      • understand 8000 words
  • Reflexes
    • Life-long Reflexes
      • Blink
      • Sneeze
      • Gag
      • Yawn
      • Cough
    • Infantile Reflexes; Not a full list
      • Moro Reflex
        • Startle response
          • to sudden or loud noise
        • Protective reaction
          • fear of falling
        • Arch back
        • Fling out arms-legs
        • Stiffen neck
        • First 4-5 months
      • Babinski’s reflex
        • Stroke foot sole to ball of foot
        • Big toe curls up, others spread out
      • Bauer’s reflex
        • Newborn lying face-down
        • Pressure to soles of feet
        • Crawling movements
        • Until six weeks of age
        • Returns when the baby is learning to crawl
      • Stepping reflex
        • Hold firmly under arms
        • Let one foot touch surface
        • Baby will lift up that foot and bring the other down
        • like walking
        • Lasts about 2 months
        • Doesn’t predict walking
      • Doll eyes (first 2 month)
        • Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR)
        • Stabilizes images on retina
        • Eyes move opposite of head
        • Keeps image centered
      • Rooting Reflex (Until 3-6 months)
        • Stroke cheek, turn toward it
        • Open mouth
        • Make sucking motions
        • Feeding reflex
      • Sucking Reflex (1 month)
        • Suck when touch their mouths
      • Grasping Reflex (3-6 months)
        • Finger against palm, will grab:
        • Quite strong
        • Works on toes too
      • Fencing Reflex (tonic neck)
        • Put baby on back, turn head
        • Baby extends arm & leg on that side
        • Bends opposite arm up
      • Parachute Reflex
        • Starts about 8-10 months
        • Rotating vertical body quickly
        • face forward (as if falling)
        • Arms reach out to break fall
    • Imprinting
      • Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989)
  • Attention
    • Attention & Arousal
    • Reticular formation
      • Regulates sleep-wake
      • Filters incoming irrelevant $
      • Damage decrease arousal
      • Involved in
        • 1. eyes-ears to cerebellum
        • 2. Cardiovascular Control
        • 3. Pain Modulation
        • 4. Sleep & Consciousness
        • 5. Habituation
      • Steady state information
        • Ignore repetitive $
      • Damage
        • Irreversible coma
  • Consciousness is about the same as attention
    • All or nothing
      • At least reporting is
      • Don’t say “partially see that”
    • Reporting
      • Present two $
      • Report A = conscious of it
      • Not report B = unconscious of it
    • Impacted by:
      • $ brightness
      • Motion
      • Relative size
      • “Top-down” processes
  • Inattention blindness
    • Don’t notice change
    • Person behind counter, giant mirror
    • Basketball & gorilla
  • Habituation
    • Consistent stimulation
    • Reticular formation, revisited

 

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 QUIZ

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Quiz” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • 1. Which is an infantile reflexes:
    • a.           coughing reflex
    • b.           sneezing reflex
    • c.           stepping reflex
    • d.           yawning reflex
  • 2. At 6 months old, an infant can:
    • a.           use single words
    • b.           say “Dadda”
    • c.           babble
    • d.           all of the above
  • 3. The ability to ignore steady state information is called:
    • a.           recollection
    • b.           habituation
    • c.           imprinting
    • d.           symmetry
  • 4. Which color do neonates not see well?
    • a.           green
    • b.           black
    • c.           blue
    • d.           red
  • 5. Severe damage to the reticular formation can cause:
    • a.           irreversible coma
    • b.           underextension
    • c.           overextension
    • d.           consolidation

For the answers: Click Here

[/dropdown_box]

 

DISCUSSION ITEM

  • Why do people give their sweet babies strange names? Got any examples?

YouTube Links:

Toddlers

August 10, 2012 by · Leave a Comment 

Toilet training & toddlers

Gaining control: today the toilet, tomorrow the world.

There is no one who has more fun and more pain than a toddler. And, remarkably, the highs and lows are only microseconds apart. They’re up, they’re down, and back up again. What a fascinating age.

Here’s what is included in this lesson:

  • Language development
  • Strange Situation task
  • Attachment
  • Hallmarks
  • Autism

Read chapter 6 of Berk’s Development Thru The Lifespan

Here are the resources you need:

CLUSTER

SLIDES

TERMS

[dropdown_box expand_text=” Terms To Know” show_more=”More” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • Ainsworth, Mary
  • Asperger’s syndrome
  • attachment
  • attachment figure
  • Attachment Q-Sort = sort descriptions of child into categories of very-like to very-unlike
  • attachment-in-making phase
  • authoritarian parenting
  • authoritative parenting
  • autism
  • autonomy versus shame and doubt = Erikson’s 2nd stage of development; virtue is will
  • avoidant attachment
  • babbling
  • basic emotions = hypothetical list of simple emotions that are biologically encoded
  • basic trust versus mistrust = Erikson’s 1st stage of development; virtue is hope
  • Bowlby, John
  • caregiver
  • casein-free diet
  • categorical self = Turner, assigning yourself to one of many levels of abstraction
  • child-directed speech
  • childhood disintegrative disorder
  • chromosomal abnormalities
  • clear-cut attachment phase
  • compliance = immediate obedience, not to be confused with respect
  • compliance category = aware of parent, can follow simple instructions
  • comprehension
  • consonant sounds
  • conversational turn-taking
  • coo
  • delay of gratification = ability to delay action for larger reward
  • demanding
  • developmental disorder
  • diet
  • difficult child = Thomas & Chase; 10%, don’t like change, loud disapproval
  • disorganized/disoriented attachment
  • easy child = Thomas & Chase; 40%, cheerful, adapts easily
  • effortful control = ability to self-regulate temperament
  • emotional self-regulation = ability to adjust emotional response to environment
  • empathy
  • ethological theory of attachment
  • first sounds
  • genetics
  • gluten-free diet
  • goodness-of-fit model = Thomas & Chase; adapt environment to match child
  • holophrases
  • indifferent parenting
  • inhibited, or shy, child = withdraw from novel stimuli, negative response
  • interactional synchrony = caregiver & baby respond to each other’s emotional cues
  • internal working model = expectations of availability of help
  • itchy clothes
  • joint attention
  • language abnormalities
  • language development
  • mercury poisoning
  • milestones
  • mirror neurons
  • multiple attachments
  • naming
  • overextensions
  • over-regularization
  • parental control
  • parental styles
  • parental warmth
  • permissive parenting
  • playmate
  • pre-attachment phase
  • pretend play
  • preverbal gestures
  • production
  • pronunciation
  • prune
  • psychoanalytic
  • reciprocal relationship phase
  • requesting
  • resistant attachment
  • Rett syndrome
  • secure attachment
  • secure base = toddlers use familiar people as refuge from explorations
  • self-conscious emotions = more than basic emotions: shame, pride, guilt, embarrassed
  • self-recognition = see self in mirror or baby in mirror
  • sensitive caregiving = prompt response to infant’s needs
  • separation anxiety = upset when caregiver leaves
  • separation episode
  • single word sentences
  • single words
  • sit up (supported)
  • sleep through night
  • slow-to-warm-up child = Thomas & Chase; 10%, inactive, low-key reactions
  • sociable child (uninhibited child) = approach novel stimuli, positive reaction
  • social interaction
  • social referencing = look at others to see how should react
  • social smile = at 8 weeks, broad grin at parents
  • species specific
  • stand up & single words
  • Strange Situation Task
  • stranger anxiety = at 10 months, afraid of unfamiliar people, warm up to them
  • telegraphic speech
  • temperament = hypothesized biological reactivity, appears early, activity level
  • toddlers
  • two-word phrases
  • underextensions
  • uninhibited child (sociable child) = approach novel stimuli, positive reaction
  • unusual attachment
  • vaccines
  • vocabulary
  • vocabulary spurt
  • wave bye-bye

 

[/dropdown_box]

NOTES

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Notes” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • Language Development
    • First Sounds
      • 1st Mont
        • Burps, grunts, sneezes et
        • Exercise vocal cord
        • Create dialogue with caregivers
      • 2 Months
        • Coo: primarily responding to “melody” of speech
        • Laugh out loud
        • Able to roll over
      • 3-4 Months
        • Consonant sounds created
        • Buh buh buh buh
        • Dah dah dah dah
        • Sleep through night
      • By 4 months
        • Infants & adults follow each other’s gaze
        • Adults label what is seen
        • Joint attention speeds up language development
      • 6 Months
        • Babbling
        • “prune” sounds not in language
        • Sit up (supported)
        • Baby food
        • Deaf infants fall behind in producing well-formed syllables
      • 8-9 Months
        • Babbling with an accent
        • Crawl & say “dada”
        • maybe “mama”
        • Small finely cut table food
    • Mastering Language
      • Joint Attention
        • Connecting words & things
        • Referent is entire object
        • Not just action
      • 10-12 months
        • Holophrases
        • Single word sentences
        • Naming Mama
        • Requesting Milk
        • Demanding Up!
      • By 1st year
        • Influence behavior of others
        • Use preverbal gestures
        • Some words
        • Infant games show conversational turn-taking
      • 12 months
        • Stand up & single words
        • Drink from a cup
        • 50% can walk
      • 18-24 months
        • Vocabulary spurt
        • Everything has a name
        • Overextensions (dog for any animal)
        • Underextensions (Kitty for family cat only)
    • Two Words At Once
      • Vocabulary builds
      • Slowly from 12 to18 mos.
      • Quickly from 18 to 24 mos.
      • 24 months
        • 200 words
        • Walking
        • Telegraphic speech (2-3 words)
          • Omit nonessentials
          • Daddy shoe
          • More cookie
    • Over-regularization
      • Over applying rules of grammar
      • Plurals and past tenses
      • I holded the rabbit
    • 1st Grade
      • Use 4000 words
      • Understand 8000 words
      • Able to share
      • Toys, food, activities
    • Remember: Comprehension Precedes Production
    • Girls ahead in early vocabulary
    • Parental Speech
      • Child-directed speech (CDS)
        • Aids language development
        • Children prefer CDS
        • Speak in short sentences
        • Use exaggerated expression
        • Very clear pronunciation
  • Attachment
    • Observe that:
      • Infants seeks to be close
      • Follow you around
      • Cry when you’re gone
      • May not be species specific
    • Psychoanalytic explanation
      • Freud’s psychosexual theory
      • Assumes
        • Personality formed in 1st 2 yrs
        • Only happens in people
        • Mother is primary care giver
    • John Bowlby’s Ethological Theory of Attachment
      • Emotional tie with mother
      • Strong biological roots
      • 4 Phases
        • 1. Pre-attachment (0-6 weeks)
          • Bond with everyone
        • 2. Attachment-in-making (1½-8mo)
          • Prefer mother’s voice
          • Prefer mother’s face
        • 3. Clear-cut attachment (8-24mo)
        • 4. Reciprocal relationship (18-24+)
    • Measuring Security of Attachment
      • Mary Ainsworth
      • Strange Situation Task
        • 1-2 year olds
      • Procedure
        • 1. Parent-infant shown room
        • 2. Left alone
          • Parent sits, infant explores
        • 3. Stranger enters
          • Talks to parent, sits & reads
          • Approaches infant
          • Parent sneaks out
        • 4. First separation episode
          • Stranger tries to interest child in toys
          • Not block searching for Mom
        • 5. Parent enters
          • Greets & comforts infant
      • Second separation episode:
        • Parent-child together
        • Mother leaves
        • Infant is alone
        • Stranger enters & comforts
        • Mother enters & comforts
    • Conclusions
      • Secure attachment
        • 65% of North American infants
        • Use parent as secure base
        • May or may not cry
        • Prefer parent over stranger
        • At reunion, seek contact
      • Avoidant attachment
        • 20% of North American infants
        • Unresponsive to parent
        • Not distressed by separation
        • React to stranger same way
        • Fail to cling
      • Resistant attachment
        • 10-15% of infants
        • Seeks closeness, fail to explore
        • Upon return, angry, resistant, hitting & pushing
        • Not easily comforted
      • Disorganized/Disoriented
        • 5-10% of infants
        • Show great insecurity
        • Confused-contradictory behavior
        • Dazed facial expression
    • Criticisms
      • Categories add up to 110%?
    • Design Problems:
      • Mothers wanted to intro child to toys & room more
      • Strangers disliked baby crying
      • Inconsistent response to child
      • Reliability of rating scales varies
  • Parental Style
    • Two components
      • Parental warmth: affection vs. rejection
      • Parental control: discipline vs. unsupervised
    • 4 Parental Styles
    • 1. Authoritative
      • High in both warmth & control
      • Predictable environment
      • Has most positive effects
      • Children do well in school, self-confident, & independent
    • 2. Authoritarian
      • Low in warmth, high in control
      • Controlling & demanding
      • Threats &punishment
      • Children are aggressive
      • Have conduct problems
    • 3. Permissive
      • High in warmth, low in control
      • No structure or predictability
      • Few limits on behaviors
      • Children are impulsive & immature
    • 4. Indifferent
      • Low in both warmth & control
      • Few limits & little attention
      • Children unsocial, disobedient & demanding
  • Multiple Attachments
    • Bowlby believed nfants predisposed to one attachment figure
    • Preference declines by age 3
    • Traditional
    • Mother as caregiver
    • Father as playmate
  • Autism
    • Developmental disorder
      • Diagnosed 1-3 years old
      • Symptoms by 18 months
      • Seek help about 24 months
      • Social & communication skills
    • Symptoms
      • Boys more than girls
      • Difficulty with pretend play
      • Poor social interactions
      • Poor verbal & nonverbal skills
      • Lack of empathy
      • Overly sensitive to $
      • Refuse to wear “itchy” clothes
      • Distress if routines changed
      • Repeated body movements
      • Unusual attachment to objects
      • Vary from moderate to severe
      • Not startle at loud noises
      • Heightened response to sounds
      • Miss language milestones:
      • Babbling by 12 months
      • Wave bye-bye by 12 months
      • Say single words by 16 months
      • 2-word phrases by 24 months (not just echoing)
    • Causes
      • Unknown
      • Genetics
      • Identical twins are much more likely than fraternal twins
      • Relatives more like to have:
        • Language abnormalities
        • Chromosomal abnormalities
      • Diet?
        • Some parents try:
          • Gluten-free diet
          • Casein-free diet (milk-cheese)
      • Mercury poisoning?
      • Inability to properly use vitamins and minerals?
      • Vaccines
        • Not the cause
        • Can take single-dose forms
        • Don’t contain added mercury
      • Mirror Neurons in Autism
        • No empathy
    • Generally includes:
      • Asperger’s (good language skills)
      • Rett syndome (for girls)
      • Childhood disintegrative disorder
      • Learn and then lose skills
      • Atypical (misc.)

 

[/dropdown_box]

QUIZ

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Quiz” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  •  1. Who is the “father” of attachment theory?
    • a.           John Bowlby
    • b.           Carl Rogers
    • c.           Albert Ellis
    • d.           Aristotle
  • 2. What are single word sentences:
    • a.           response-demand speech
    • b.           semi-globalizations
    • c.           empathic speech
    • d.           holophrases
  • 3. You should consider autism if a child is not babbling by:
    • a.           3 months
    • b.           6 months
    • c.           9 months
    • d.           1 year
  • 4. When parents and child are looking at the same object it’s:
    • a.           reciprocal attachment
    • b.           insecure attachment
    • c.           heart warming
    • d.           joint attention
  • 5. “I holded the rabbit” is an:
    • a.           emphatic speech
    • b.           underextension
    • c.           overregulation
    • d.           overextension

For the answers: Click Here

[/dropdown_box]

 

DISCUSSION ITEM

  • Do you have any examples of clever or funny things children say?

 

 

Preschoolers

August 9, 2012 by · Leave a Comment 

Preschool sports & skills

So many things to learn in such a short amount of time.

Preschoolers are quick learners. And they have a quite a wide range of skills they are trying to master. They can name four colors, can count to four, and can hop on one foot four times. They are not very good at sharing but they are better than they were.

It’s fascinating to see children develop a sense of who they are and what they can do. And somehow they obtain a mind. If you cut your finger, your nose or your toes, you describe it as MY finger, My nose and My toes. We explore where this sense of Me-My comes from.

Here’s what is included in this lesson:

  • Theory of Mind
  • False Belief Task
  • Language Development
  • Autism

Read chapter 7 of Berk’s Development Thru The Lifespan Here are the resources you need:

CLUSTER

SLIDES

TERMS

[dropdown_box expand_text=” Terms To Know” show_more=”More” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • academic programs = series of educational classes (program)
  • ADHD
  • animistic thinking = Piaget’s preoperational stage, dolls have feelings too
  • appearance-reality
  • autism
  • autism spectrum disorders
  • basket-catching
  • beliefs
  • body development
  • brain development
  • brain metabolism
  • cardinality = learn ordinality first (greater than), learn last number limits set
  • centration = Piaget’s preoperational stage, focus on one aspect only
  • cephalocaudal trend
  • cerebellum = coordinates motor control, balance
  • child-centered programs = education focused on needs of children
  • cognitive processing
  • cognitive theories
  • conservation = Piaget, develops in concrete stage, volume is constant but cup shape can change
  • corpus callosum = major neural connection between brain hemispheres
  • deficits of mind
  • direct perception
  • direct-matching hypothesis
  • dominant cerebral hemisphere = left for language, right for spatial tasks
  • dual representation = Piaget, acquired with age, able to use symbol and what it means
  • egocentrism = Piaget, child sees only own perspective
  • emergent literacy = what kids know about reading before they can read (vocabulary, sounds)
  • empathy
  • expansions = expanding of what child says, increasing complexity of conversation
  • false-belief task
  • fast-mapping = learning concepts based on only a few data points
  • fine motor skills
  • gross motor skills
  • growth hormone (GH) = secreted by pituitary, helps regulate growth
  • guided participation = Vygotsky, exploration within limits, help when needed
  • hierarchical classification = Piaget, concrete thinking structures
  • hippocampus = consolidates STM into LRM, needed for encoding, not retrieval
  • immediate response
  • intents
  • interaction theory
  • internal states
  • inverse modeling hypothesis
  • irreversibility = Piaget, preoperational stage, don’t know objects taken apart and be put together
  • knowledge
  • language development
  • lateralization of hemispheres
  • memory strategies = methods to increase recall, usually increase encoding efficiency
  • mental representation
  • mental skills
  • mental states
  • metacognition = knowing what you know, awareness of own cognitive processes
  • mind
  • mind-blindness
  • mirror neurons
  • naturalistic observation
  • ordinality = Piaget, learn greater than relationsips
  • overregularization = apply grammar rules in all cases; I holded the rabbit
  • phonological awareness = knowing letter sounds
  • pituitary gland = regulated by hypothalamus
  • plasticity
  • pragmatics = how context impacts word meanings
  • preferential looking
  • pre-linguistic
  • preoperational stage = Piaget, ages 2-6, no conservation or logical thought
  • pretend
  • private speech = Vygotsky, self-guidance, talk to self when solving problem
  • Project Head Start = summer program for preschoolers, started in 1965
  • psychosocial dwarfism = extreme deprivation cause low levels of growth hormone, failure to thrive
  • recasts = correcting language errors without stopping conversation, what kind of food do you want?
  • relational frame theory
  • response modeling
  • reticular formation = brain stem, regulates awake-sleep
  • Sally-Anne task
  • scaffolding = Bruner’s addition to Vygotsky, we learn by building on previous knowledge
  • schizophrenia
  • scripts = common social interactions you can predict. Hello, hello; How are you, fine how are you
  • second-person perspective
  • simulation theory
  • sleep-deprived
  • Smarties task
  • sociodramatic play = acting out scenes, using puppets, props, telling a story
  • stuttering
  • synaptic pruning
  • theory of mind
  • third-person perspective
  • thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) = released by pituitary, regulates thyroid

[/dropdown_box]

NOTES

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Notes” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • Theory of Mind
    • Understanding:
      • Your internal states
      • Others internal states
      • You & others might differ
    • Mental states
      • Beliefs
      • Intents
      • Knowledge
      • Mental skills
      • Pretending
  • Mind
    • Not directly observable
      • Inferred
      • Experienced
        • Feel like mind & body differ
    • Assume
      • Others are like us
      • I think this way
      • Everyone thinks this way
    • Useful
      • Predict what others will do
      • Empathy (how others feel)
  • False-Belief Task
    • Also called “Sally-Anne” task
    • 2 dolls
      • Sally has a basket
      • Anne has a box
    • Scene
      • Sally puts marble in basket
      • Leaves room
      • Anne takes marble, puts in box
      • Sally returns
      • Must predict behavior based on what Sally knows
        • different from what child knows
    • Basket  4+ years
    • Box  3 years or autistic
  • Appearance-Reality
    • “Smarties” task
    • Box of candy but holds pencils
    • What will John say is in it?
      • Pencils
  • Relational Frame Theory
    • Learn to discriminate relation
    • Multiple cues
      • Self, others, place and time
    • Verbally respond
    • More complex combos of simple
    • Based on Skinner
      • Appropriate responses rewarded
      • No higher cognitive functions
      • Operant conditioning
  • Cognitive Theories
    • Direct matching hypothesis
      • Elicits similar emotion in you
      • Then you infer the meaning
    • Inverse modeling hypothesis
      • Simulates intended goal
      • Infer intention
    • Response Modeling
      • Prepare a complementary action
      • What do you have to do analysis
      • That are they likely to do
      • What will I do next
    • Simulation theory
      • Imagine how you would react
      • Create a mental representation
      • Pretend
  • Interaction Theory
    • Very little cognitive processing
    • Minds of others are directly perceived
      • Second-person perspective
      • Not theoretical 3rd person
    • Process
      • Perceive actions, infer meaning
      • Intended meaning is apparent upon perception
      • Mental states like “beliefs” and “desires” are unnecessary
    • Example
      • See angry face
      • Immediate response
      • Difficult to tell if
      • Process quickly or directly
    • How it works
      • Mirror Neurons
      • Neural circuits that response to watching what others do
      • Take time to develop
  • Brain Development
    • Brain metabolism
    • Maxs out at 4
    • More synaptic connections than needed
    • Synaptic pruning follows
    • By age 8 – 10
      • Plasticity reduced to adult level
  • Lateralization of hemispheres
    • Develop at different rates
    • Left hemisphere
      • 3-6 years, develops quickly
      • 6+ years, levels off
    • Right hemisphere
      • Slow development
      • 8-10, sudden burst
  • Body Growth
    • In general
      • Child gradually becomes thinner
      • Grows 2-3 inches per year
      • Gains 4-5 lbs per year
    • All 20 primary teeth by age 3
    • Vision is 20/20 by age 4
    • Posture & balance improve
    • Sleeps 11-13 hrs per night
      • usually without a nap
  • Language Development
    • 3-year-olds:
      • Use pronouns & prepositions
      • Three-word sentences
      • Plural words
    • 4-year-olds:
      • Understand size relationships
      • Follow a three-step command
      • Enjoy rhymes & word play
      • Name four colors
      • Count to four
    • 5-year-olds:
      • Understand time (somewhat)
      • Respond to “why” questions
      • Know telephone number
      • Count to 10
    • Stuttering
      • Common in 3-4 year olds
      • Ideas come faster than words
      • Keep frustration low
      • Listen to what they say
      • Ignore stutter
      • Consult speech therapist in 6 mo
  • Gross Motor Skills
    • Center of gravity shifts downward (Cephalocaudal trend)
      • Balance improves
      • Motor skills improve
    • Catching changes with age
      • 2 yrs old, catch with arms-chest
      • 3 yrs old, catch with hands-chest
      • 6 yrs old, catch with hands
      • Small balls too
    • Motor skills can’t be taught
      • Except throwing
      • 2-Yr Olds
        • Throw ball overhand (body still)
        • Kick large ball forward
        • Jump 12 inches
        • Stead gait
        • Can’t turn smoothly
        • Can’t stop suddenly
      • 3-Yr Olds
        • “Basket-catch” a ball (use body)
        • Balance on 1 foot for 1 sec
        • Broad jump 15-24 inches
        • Pedal a tricycle
        • Hop 3 times
      • 4-Yr Olds
        • Broad jump 24-34 inches
        • Catch a bounced ball
        • Hop 4 times
        • Gallop
      • 5-Yr Olds
        • Run, Turn, Stop & Skip smoothly
        • Descend stairs alternating feet
        • Hop across the room (16 feet)
        • Broad jump 28-36 inches
        • Catch a ball (hands only)
        • Walk a balance beam
        • Jump 1 foot high
  • Fine Motor Skills
    • 2-Yr Olds
      • Put on clothes (no snaps or buttons)
      • Build tower of 6-8 blocks
      • Hold a glass in one hand
      • Turn pages of a book
      • Scribble
    • 3-Yr Olds
      • Pour from a pitcher
      • Draw a straight line
      • Eat with a spoon
      • Copy a circle
      • Smear paint
      • Draw person with three parts
      • Use blunt-nose scissors
      • Self-dressing (mostly)
    • 4-Yr Olds
      • Cut on a line with scissors
      • Make block buildings
      • Make letters (crudely)
      • Self-dressing (not buttons)
      • Each with spoon & fork
      • Draw a square
    • 5-Yr Olds
      • Button & zip clothes
      • Copy squares
      • String beads
      • Tie shoelaces (sort of)
      • Spreading with knife
      • Draw a triangle
    • 6-Yr Olds
      • Still be somewhat uncoordinated
      • Might learn to ride a bicycle
      • Can move in time w/ music
      • Tie shoe laces
      • Has difficulty making choices
      • Friendships are unstable
      • Needs to win
      • Change rules to suit them
      • More independent
      • Feel less secure
      • Craves affection from parents & teachers
  • Autism (again)
    • Seem to lack theory of mind
    • Still operate like young children
    • Possible factors
    • Small head size
    • Extra-rapid brain growth in 1st yr
  • Deficits of Mind
    • Autism spectrum disorders
    • Schizophrenia
    • ADHD
    • Sleep-deprived
    • Severe emotional pain
    • Mind-blindness: can’t see things from another perspective
  • Mind before 3?
    • Difficult to assess
    • Pre-linguistic
    • Use preferential looking
      • looking time is DV
      • 9-month-old infants
      • prefer behaviors by human hand over hand-like object
  • Non-Humans?
    • An open question
    • Non linguistic
    • Lack of naturalistic observations
  • Best Summary
    • Theory of mind as a continuum

[/dropdown_box]

QUIZ

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Quiz” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • 1. Ironically, 6 year olds become more independent but less ________.
    • a.       lateralized
    • b.       talkative
    • c.        secure
    • d.       reliant
  • 2. Which allows us to learn by watching what others do:
    • a.       oligodendrocytes
    • b.       mirror neurons
    • c.        cerebellum
    • d.       attachment
  • 3. Which gross motor skill can be taught:
    • a.       holding a glass in one hand
    • b.       closing snaps
    • c.        throwing
    • d.       walking
  • 4. Which technique is used to test pre-linguistic children?
    • a.       preferential looking
    • b.       sleep deprivation
    • c.        false belief task
    • d.       diaries
  •  5. 4-year-olds are able to:
    • a.       hop on one foot four times
    •  b.       name four colors
    •  c.        count to four
    •  d.       all of the above

For the answers: Click Here [/dropdown_box]

DISCUSSION ITEM

  • What were your favorite childhood activities and games?

Grades 1-3

August 9, 2012 by · Leave a Comment 

Childhood illnesses

First day of school: a new adventure.

School is a big change for children and their parents. It’s a fun, exciting, new and scary experience. There are other children to meet, get along with, like-dislike, learn from and play with. There’s classroom learning and playground learning too.

But the biggest changes are going inside the heads of these 6, 7 and 8-year olds. Their ability to think and understand the world change. They acquire the ability to empathize and see things from other perspectives. The essential ways they think and solve problems change.

Seems like only yesterday they got a mind, now they are learning to use it.

Here’s what is included in this lesson:

  • Cognitive reasoning
  • Vygotsky
  • Piaget

Read chapter 8 of Berk’s Development Thru The Lifespan

Here are the resources you need:

CLUSTER

SLIDES

TERMS

[dropdown_box expand_text=” Terms To Know” show_more=”More” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • abstract thought
  • accommodation
  • active learning
  • active participation
  • androgyny = combine male & female characteristics, sexual ambiguity
  • animistic thinking
  • assimilation
  • assisted discovery
  • associative play = playing same game but not together, everyone doing puzzles
  • authoritarian child-rearing style = little warmth, strict rules & punishments
  • authoritative child-rearing style = firm guidelines but flexible rules
  • Bruner, Jerome
  • child-rearing styles = Baummind; strategies & parent-child interaction patterns
  • cognitive development
  • concrete operational stage
  • conservation
  • conservation of area
  • conservation of length
  • conservation of number
  • conservation of substance
  • conservation of volume
  • conservation of weight
  • construction of knowledge
  • cooperative learning
  • cooperative play = taking turns, dynamic interaction with others
  • cross-cultural differences
  • developmental trend
  • discovery learning
  • disequilibrium
  • education
  • egocentric thought
  • equilibrium
  • formal operational stage
  • gender constancy = Kohlberg’s extension of Piaget’s theory, create schema of own gender
  • gender identity = which gender you think you are
  • gender schema theory = learning about gender from the surrounding culture, mental representation
  • gender typing = how girls and boys are supposed to behave
  • guided participation
  • head full of people metaphor
  • holistic theory
  • immediate feedback
  • impatient
  • individual differences
  • induction = rite of passage, celebration of group acceptance
  • initiative versus guilt = Erikson’s 3rd developmental stage, virtue is purpose
  • instructional scaffolding
  • internalization
  • internalized dialogues
  • interpsychological
  • intersubjectivity
  • intrapsychological
  • logical thought
  • magical thinking
  • make-believe play
  • matters of personal choice = not imperatives, matters of preference
  • mentor facilitation
  • mentor-student learning
  • middle childhood
  • moral imperatives = absolute rule of how one must act
  • nonsocial activity = playing by self
  • object permanence
  • parallel play = play next to each other but not with each other
  • peer collaboration
  • peer learning
  • permissive child-rearing style = parenting with indulgence, few performance demands
  • physical aggression = hitting, pushing, threatening physical harm
  • Piaget, Jean
  • preoperational stage
  • private speech
  • private speech
  • proactive aggression = attack, intent to harm
  • prosocial behavior (altruistic behavior) = helping others of your species
  • proximal development
  • psychological control = intrusive manipulation of others
  • reactive aggression = retaliation, intent to harm
  • readiness to learn
  • relational aggression = covert aggression, bullying; shun from group
  • reversibility
  • scaffolding
  • schema
  • self-concept = self-esteem plus other self-judgments
  • self-critical
  • self-directed speech
  • self-esteem = Maslow, Rogers; self-judgment of existential worth or value
  • sensorimotor stage
  • social conventions = generally accepted standard, unwritten law of how to behave
  • social mediation
  • social speech
  • somersaults
  • sympathy = feeling concerned, understanding how someone else feels
  • think like a scientist
  • time out = negative punishment; common parenting technique, not recommended
  • uninvolved child-rearing style = parental style with limited restrictions
  • verbal aggression = threats, taunting, yelling, name calling
  • Vygotsky, Lev
  • zone of proximal development

[/dropdown_box]

NOTES

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Notes” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • Childhood
    • 6-Yr Olds
      • Catch ball with hands
      • Still be somewhat uncoordinated
      • Might learn to ride a bicycle
      • Can move in time w/ music
      • Tie shoe laces
      • Has difficulty making choices
      • Friendships are unstable
      • Needs to win
      • Change rules to suit them
      • More independent
      • Feel less secure
      • Craves affection from parents & teachers
    •  7-Yr Olds
      • Describe similarity of two objects
      • Know days, months & seasons
      • Can do somersaults
      • Can tell time
      • Understand diff btwn right-wrong
      • Want to be perfect
      • Quite self-critical
      • Avoid & withdraw from adults
      • Takes direction well
      • Rarely punished
      • Worries more
      • Waits for turn in activities
      • Better loser; less likely to place blame
    • 8-Yr Olds
      • Wants to know reason for things
      • Thinking is organized & logical
      • Converse almost at adult level
      • Reading is a major interest
      • Excellent finger control
      • Reversibility begins
      • (4+2=6 and 6–2=4)
      • Close friends of same sex
      • Makes friends easily
      • Impatient waiting, wait for special events is torturous
      • Wants to be part of a group (clubs, team sports)
      • Emotions change quickly
      • Motivated by money
  • Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)
    • Born in Orsha, Belarus
      • Then part of Russian Empire
      • Middle class Jewish family
      • Father was banker
      • Attended Moscow State U
    • Jewish Lottery
      • Anti-affirmative action (3%)
    • Holistic theory
      • Cultural-historical
      • Development & culture together
      • Reasoning comes from practical activities in a social context
      • Infants born with basic capabilities
        • perception, attention, & memory
      • During 1st 2 yrs
      • Develop because of direct contact with environment
    • How Develop
      • Child “constructs” knowledge base
      • Manipulates objects in world
      • Asks “why”
      • Culture & social influences answer
        • Socially formed mind
        • Culturally important tasks
      • Children should interact with many people
        • Help direct them
    • Effective social interactions
      • 1. Guided Participation
        • AKA, mentor facilitation
        • Present challenge
        • Provide instruction
        • Offer assistance
        • Encourage & motivate
      • 2. Scaffolding
        • Jerome Bruner’s term; not Vygotsky
        • Instructional scaffolding
        • Provide major support
        • As concept is learned, give less
      • 3. Intersubjectivity
        • 2 minds are better than 1
        • Engage in dialogue, get more than each mind separately
        • Shared understanding
        • Truth within the current context
        • Good examples:
          • Mentor-student
          • Peer learning
        • Better context for internalization
        • Extend each other’s thinking
    • 1st social interpsychological
    • Later individual intrapsychological
    • Proximal Development
      • Zone of Proximal Development
      • Distance between
      • Learn on your own
      • Learn with help
    • Education
      • Have goals & plans
      • Spend time on task
      • Individualization of process
      • Each person different
      • At different point in life
    • Principles
      • Provide immediate feedback 1:1
      • Active participation
      • Assisted discovery
      • Peer collaboration
      • Cooperative learning
    • Arrange tasks
      • Can handle by self
      • Can handle with assistance
    • Make-believe play is ideal context for cognitive development
    • Developmental Trend
      • All mental functions have external or social origins
      • Move from social to egocentric
      • Start social, move to private
      • Social mediation – interaction between mentor & learner
      • Private speech – self dialogue
    • Self-Directed Speech
      • Talk out load to self
      • Talk to self as to others
      • Used when
      • Confused
      • Make mistake
      • Solve problem
    • Private Speech
      • Silent self-directed speech
      • Learn to silently talk to self
      • Internalized dialogues
      • “Head full of people” metaphor
  • Summary of Vygotsky
    • Social to private
    • Follow own route
    • Assisted discovery
    • Relies heavily on language
  • Follow-up
    • Difficult to determine how much verbalization needed
    • Direct observation & practice?
      • Canoeing in Micronesia
      • Weaving in Guatemala
    • Cross-cultural differences
      • Getting dressed, use of toys
    • Middle-SES families
    • Turkey & US
      • Parents verbally instruct
      • Like school teaching
    • Mayan & Indian families
      • Children expected to observe
      • Not instructed
  • Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
    • 3 months older than Vygotsy
    • Born in Neuchâte, Switzerland
      • French mother; Swiss father (professor of medieval literature)
      • After college, moved to France
    • Helped Alfred Binet develop IQ test
      • Interested in why children consistently gave wrong answers
    • Cognitive Development
      • How children use experience to develop understanding of the world
    • 4 Stages
    • 1. Sensorimotor stage
      • Birth to 2 years
      • Low competence in use of:
      • images, language & symbols
      • Develops object permanence
      • Believe disappear is not exist
      • Learn objects & people still exist, even if hidden
      • Peek-a-boo
    • 2. Preoperational stage
      • 2-7 years old
      • Egocentric thought
      • Child views world solely from own perspective
      • Magical thinking
      • Animistic thinking
        • objects have intentions; moon is following me
      • Assimilation
      • Put everything in one category
      • Learns language
      • Learns conservation
        • Quantity unrelated to appear
        • Number
        • Length
        • Substance
        • Substance (unroll)
        • Volume
        • Area
        • Weight
    • 3. Concrete operational stage
      • 7 to 12 years
      • Logical thought
      • Loss of egocentrism
      • Accommodation
      • Break into smaller categories
    • 4. Formal operational stage
      • 12 years to adulthood
      • Abstract thought
      • Thinking like a scientist
  • Piaget & Education
    • Discovery learning
    • Active learning
    • Readiness to learn
    • Individual differences
    • Schema
  • Piaget Summary
    • Think differently than adults
    • Different structures (schemes)
    • Learn from 3 A’s:
      • Environmental Adaptation
        • Repeated drop spoon
      • Assimilation
        • More info on current cards
      • Accommodation
        • More cards
  • Processes
    • Equilibrium
      • Comfortable steady state
      • Use assimilation
    • Disequilibrium
      • Uncomfortable
      • Use accommodation
    • Culture impacts cognitive develop
    • Stages are in the right order
  • Criticisms
    • Based on his children
    • Always trust data
      • Question interpretations
    • Young infants know basic physics
      • Objects can’t move thru objects
      • Drop something, it falls
    • Can be taught higher stage tasks
    • Children acquire skills sooner
      • Object permanence by 3½ month
      • Solve by analogy by 1 year
      • Limited by how ask questions
  • Piaget vs Vygotsky
    • Vygotsky
      • Children go from “social speech” to inner egocentric speech
    • Piaget
      • Children go from personal dialogue to social speech

[/dropdown_box]

 

 QUIZ

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Quiz” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • 1. “Who has more rocket fuel” is a task for testing ____________.
    • a.       conservation of cognition
    • b.       conservation of volume
    • c.        conservation of energy
    • d.       conservation of space
  •  2. Piaget based his theory on his observations of:
    • a.       English children
    • b.       his own children
    • c.        autistic children
    • d.       hospital patients
  •  3. Which one of Vygotsky’s stages of cognitive development:
    • a.       concrete operational
    • b.       formal operational
    • c.        preoperational
    • d.       none of the above
  •  4. The distance between what you can learn on your own and what you can learn with help is called the:
    • a.       intercept of nurture and nature
    • b.       zone of proximal development
    • c.        center of mediated learning
    • d.       area of formal operations
  •  5. Adding more file cards of information to you mind is:
    • a.       accommodation
    • b.       crystallization
    • c.        assimilation
    • d.       innovation

For the answers: Click Here

[/dropdown_box]

 

DISCUSSION ITEM

  • What were your after-school child care arrangements when you were young?

 

 

 

 

 

Grades 4-6

August 7, 2012 by · Leave a Comment 

Teams, clubs & peers

Personal loneliness & team success.

The end of elementary school is a success-failure story. Sometimes you hit a home run, sometimes you sit on bench. Grades 4-6 require more teamwork, more flexibility and more thinking. School becomes more difficult and grades are taken more seriously. People worry that your current performance will be Here’s what is included in this lesson:

  • IQ
  • intelligence
  • multiple intelligences
  • learning disabilities
  • mental retardation
  • ADHD
  • gifted

Read chapter 9 of Berk’s Development Thru The Lifespan Here are the resources you need:

CLUSTER

SLIDES

TERMS

[dropdown_box expand_text=” Terms To Know” show_more=”More” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • ability to sit still
  • adaptive behavior
  • ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder)
  • birth complication
  • brain injuries
  • chronic disability
  • cognitive maps = mental maps (find way through maze), represent & organize information
  • cognitive self-regulation = metacognition, monitoring and control of mental strategies
  • concrete operational stage = Piaget’s stage for
  • constructivist classroom = less lecture, more self-directed learning & task sequences
  • convergent thinking = rewarded for interconnecting ideas; thought to increase problem solving
  • cooperative learning = facilitated learning using labs, problem solving tasks and groups
  • creativity = generating new ideas and products
  • daydreaming
  • developmental delay
  • developmental disability
  • diagnosis
  • difficulty organizing
  • divergent thinking = rewarded for new ideas; thought to increase creativity
  • dominance hierarchy = hierarchical structure of social or peer group
  • dosage levels
  • dynamic assessment = Vygotsky; learn-assess-learn-asses
  • easily distracted
  • educational self-fulfilling prophecies
  • elaboration = adding details to make item more memorable; more time equals deeper processing
  • emotional intelligence = knowledge and awareness of how you feel
  • environmental enrichment
  • environmental factors
  • euphemism treadmill
  • genetic differences
  • genetics
  • gifted = intellectually more advanced, opposite end of normal curve from mental retardation
  • Goddard, Henry
  • hyperactive-impulsive
  • hyperactive-impulsive & inattentive
  • hyperactivity
  • hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms
  • idiot
  • idiota
  • imbecile
  • impatient
  • impulsivity
  • inattention
  • inattention symptoms
  • inclusive classrooms = special education students are included in general classroom setting
  • intellectual disability
  • intelligence
  • IQ
  • IQ myths
  • learning disabilities = significant problems with learning or school
  • medications
  • mental age
  • mental retardation
  • mentally challenged
  • mentally delayed
  • mentally slow
  • mildly retarded
  • moderate mental retardation
  • moron
  • obesity = excess body fat; BMI over 30
  • organization = Piaget’s principle of mental representations, constructing & connecting schemata
  • pathophysiology
  • phonics approach = learn reading by learning sounds
  • predominantly inattentive
  • prenatal environment
  • profoundly retarded
  • racial IQ gap
  • rehearsal = keeping items in working memory by repeating them over and over
  • reversibility = part of Piaget’s concrete operations, order of addition doesn’t matter
  • reward mechanism
  • rough-and-tumble play = active play that includes rolling, wrestling, chasing and laughing
  • school skills
  • school success
  • seriation = part of Piaget’s concrete operations, putting items in order
  • sheltered workshop
  • side effects
  • social-constructivist classroom = less lecture, more small groups & collaborative tasks
  • spaced out
  • special
  • speech delays
  • stereotype threat = perform worse on tasks if situation cues indicate you will confirm a negative stereotype (anxious that you will fail and “prove” stereotype is true
  • stimulants
  • sugar
  • symptoms
  • talent = natural talent or skill
  • theory of multiple intelligences = Gardner’s model, 8 factors: musical, visual, verbal, logical, bodily, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic
  • traditional classroom = multiple students with single teacher at same location
  • transitive inference = inferring from complex interrelated facts
  • traumatic brain injury
  • treatment
  • triarchic theory of successful intelligence: Sternberg’s 3 factor theory: metacognition (executive processing), performance (LTM, doing) and knowledge-acquisition (choosing relevant information).
  • untrained
  • whole-language approach = Chomsky, emphasis on meaning, literature, journaling; not phonics
  • WISC

[/dropdown_box]

NOTES

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Notes” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • Intelligence
    • IQ
      • To predict school success
        • Good predictor but not perfect
      • Not a measure of ability
      • Measure school skills
        • Ability to sit still
        • Language skills
        • Doesn’t underestimate academic performance of ethnic subjects
    • IQ Myths
      • Folks generally believe indicates
        • 1. genetic differences
        • 2. fundamental brain characteristics
      • Efficiency, neural speed
      • IQ does correlate with socio-econ level
        • Sometimes
    • Race & Intelligence
      • Some studies show IQ dif in Asian, White & Black
        • Racial IQ Gap
        • Only as group data
        • Lots of overlap; individuals from all levels
      • Race & intel. poorly defined
      • Differences are meaningless
    • Environmental Enrichment
      • Deprivation isn’t good
      • During development
        • Thicker cerebrum
        • Dendrite arbors
      • Infancy
        • Games that increase IQ
      • WISC for ages 6-16
    • Unusually low scores
      • Mental Retardation
  • Mental Retardation
    • Used in scientific literature
    • Used in legal settings
    • Retarded:
      • Has a specific meaning
        • slow, delayed, hindered
        • mentally delayed
      • 1895, mentally slow
        • Replaced idiot, moron & imbecile
    • Idiot
      • Not aware of public affairs
      • Idiota = individual, layman
      • Untrained…..un-trainable
    • Henry Goddard, 1910
      • Idiot
        • Thought to be inherited
        • Profoundly retarded
        • Mental age 0-2
        • IQ below 30
      • Imbecile
        • Moderate mental retardation
          • Mental age 3-7
          • IQ 31-49
        • Apparent within year 1-3
        • Speech delays
        • Limited academic potential
          • Need support in school
        • Can learn self care
        • Can learn simple tasks
        • Usually semi-independently
          • Sheltered workshop
          • Live with parents or group home
      • Moron
        • Mildly retarded
        • Mental age 7-10
        • IQ 51-70
    • Mental Retardation
      • Still used for:
      • Qualify for special education $
      • Used in scientific literature
      • Three criteria
        • IQ below 70
        • Before age of 18
        • Limited adaptive behavior
          • Communication, self-help
    • Unknown causes for 50%
    • Known causes
      • Genetics
      • Down syndrome
      • Triple-X syndrome
      • PKU
      • Prenatal environment
      • Fetal alcohol syndrome
      • Rubella
      • Toxins
      • Birth complication
      • Lack of oxygen
    • Meaning of term
      • Learn more slowly than typical
      • Take longer to learn
      • Require more repetition
      • Adapt skills to their level
    • Assumes:
      • Every child is able to learn
      • Late in learning to
      • Sit up, crawl, walk or talk
      • Self-care
      • Doesn’t describe well:
        • Deficits in memory
        • Lack of social inhibition
        • Difficult with problem solving
    • Euphemism Treadmill
      • Eventually becomes an insult
    • Alternative Names
      • Developmental delay
        • Sound better
        • Still means retarded
      • Intellectual disability
        • Not emotional or psychological
        • Traumatic brain injury
        • Lead poisoning
        • Alzheimer’s
      • Mentally challenged individuals
        • Implies can overcome it
      • Special
        • It doesn’t feel special
      • Developmental disability
        • Epilepsy
        • Autism
        • Rett
        • Cerebral palsy
        • Any problem before 18 years
  • ADHD
    • Developmental Disability
    • 3-5% of children (worldwide)
    • 8-10% of school children
    • Chronic disability
      • 30% have problems as adults
    • 2-3x more likely in boys
      • Genetics or bias of teachers?
    • Pathophysiology
      • Unclear
      • Reduction of brain volume
        • Particularly in left prefrontal cortex
      • Also cerebellum?
        • More mature motor development
      • Frontal & temporal lobes
        • Up to 3 years delay
      • Unusually thin right cortex
        • Normal by time were teens
      • Reduced blood circulation
      • Sig. higher concentration of dopamine transporters
      • Maybe lower levels of glucose metabolism
      • “Reward” mechanism only works for ADHD folk when task is inherently motivating
    • Subtypes
      • 1. Hyperactive-impulsive
        • 6+ hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms
        • <6 inattention symptoms
      • 2. Predominantly inattentive
        • 6+ inattentive symptoms
        • >6 hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms
      • 2. Predominantly inattentive
        • Less likely to act out (probs. with children)
          • sit quietly, not pay attention
          • may not notice has ADHD
      • 3. Hyperactive-impulsive & inattentive
        • 6+ inattention
        • 6+ hyperactivity-impulsivity
        • Most common type in children
    • No cure
      • Treat symptoms
      • Can be successful in school & life
    • Diagnosis
      • Must have symptoms for 6 or more months
    • Inattention:
      • Easily distracted
      • Miss details
      • Forget things
      • Frequently switch from activities
      • Difficulty focusing on one thing
      • Easily bored unless doing something enjoyable
      • Difficulty organizing
      • Difficulty completing tasks
      • Trouble completing homework assignments
      • Often losing things
      • Daydreaming
      • Easily confused
      • Difficulty following instructions
    • Hyperactivity:
      • Fidget and squirm in their seats
      • Talk nonstop
      • Run around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight
      • Hard to sit still (dinner, school, story time)
      • Constantly in motion
      • Difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities
    • Impulsivity
      • Can’t wait turns in games
      • Want everything now
      • Interrupt conversations
      • Impatient
      • Blurt out comments, emotions
      • No regard for consequences
    • Diagnosis Difficulties
      • Can miss inattentive symptoms because quiet and less likely to act out
      • Sit quietly and seem to work
      • Get along better than other ADHD kids
      • Can think hyperactive and impulsive have emotional or disciplinary problems
    • Causes
      • Genetics
      • Thinner brain tissue
        • Not permanent
        • Grows thick as get older
      • Environmental factors
        • Smoking & alcohol during pregnancy
        • Exposure to high levels of lead
      • Brain injuries
        • Similar symptoms to ADHD
        • Brain injuries are common in ADHD kids
      • Sugar
        • Popular belief
        • Not supported by research
        • But if told kids had sugar, rated higher
    • Symptoms appear early in life
      • Often between 3 and 6
      • Often noticed in school
      • Not follow directions
      • Spaced out
    • Treatment
      • Reduce symptoms
      • Medications
        • Stimulants
      • What works for one child might not work for another
        • Side effects
        • Dosage levels

[/dropdown_box]

QUIZ

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Quiz” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • 1. Historically, what did “idiot” mean?
    • a.           uninvolved
    • b.           incapable
    • c.           damaged
    • d.           broken
  • 2. Which is a developmental disability?
    • a.           cerebral palsy
    • b.           epilepsy
    • c.           autism
    • d.           all of the above
  • 3. ADHD is a:
    • a.           developmental stage
    • b.           transitional phase
    • c.           chronic disorder
    • d.           Stroop effect
  • 4. Who proposed 3 categories of mental retardation:
    • a.           Goddard
    • b.           Stroop
    • c.           Piaget
    • d.           Freud
  • 5. Symptoms of ADHD typically appear between:
    • a.           1-2 years
    • b.           3-6 years
    • c.           7-9 years
    • d.           10-12 years

For the answers: Click Here [/dropdown_box]

DISCUSSION ITEM

  • Should gifted children stay in normal classes or have special programs for them?

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