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3 Terms: Genetics

June 22, 2013 by  

Genes

  • 25,000 genes
  • 46 chromosomes
  • affected parent
  • albinism
  • allele
  • asthma
  • autosomal traits
  • autosome
  • canalization = robustness, strongly canalized behaviors develop in many different environments
  • cancer
  • carrier
  • chromosomes = combination of DNA, RNA and protein; human cells have 46 (23 pairs); holds genes
  • cluster
  • Coffin-Lowry syndrome
  • collectivist societies = cultures that value group achievement; opposite of individualism
  • cystic fibrosis
  • deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) = molecule of genetic code, double-helix structure
  • dominant
  • dominant–recessive inheritance = Medelian theory, genes don’t mix, win-lose (freckles, no-freckles)
  • environmental influence
  • epigenesis = assumes relationship between genetics and environment is bidirectional
  • essential traits
  • experimental study of genetics
  • extended-family household = children parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles; all in one house
  • fraternal twins (dizygotic) = two fertilized eggs, different gene combination, same environment
  • gametes = reproductive cells (sperm and egg)
  • gene = short piece of genetic code (DNA and RNA)
  • genes
  • genetic counseling = helping patients at risk for inherited disorders to evaluate options
  • genetic–environmental correlation = amount both factors contribute to a trait
  • genetics
  • genomic imprinting = non-Mendelian inheritance, genes are chemically turned on or off
  • genotype = genetic composition
  • hemophilia
  • hepatic enzyme
  • hereditary factors
  • heritability estimate = how much trait is due to genetics
  • heterozygous
  • heterozygous = each parent gives different allele (freckles & no-freckles)
  • homozygous = each parent gives same allele (freckles gene from each)
  • Huntington’s disease
  • hypertension
  • identical twins (monozygotic) = single fertilized cell divides, each becomes a child
  • incomplete dominance = mixing of two traits, each halfway; might not exist in humans
  • incomplete recessive
  • individualistic societies = cultures that value personal achievement; opposite of collectivism
  • inheritance
  • kinship studies = compare family characteristics; including identical twin studies
  • male pattern baldness
  • meiosis = replication of gonad cells, shuffles genes in each chromosome pair, makes 4 gametes with only 23 chromosomes, each is a unique combination of parents” genetic material
  • Mendel, Gregor
  • Mendel’s peas
  • mitosis = cell replication process of making two identical copies
  • mood disorders
  • multifactorial
  • multiple mutations
  • multiple sclerosis
  • mutation
  • niche-picking = tendency to pick activities that match inherited traits
  • obesity
  • offspring
  • phenotype = observation characteristics
  • PKU (Phenylketonuria)
  • polygencic disorders
  • polygenic inheritance = traits based on multiple genes
  • prenatal diagnostic methods = testing for diseases and conditions before birth
  • progeny
  • public policies = governmental programs and laws
  • range of reaction = portion of gene-environment interaction due to genetics
  • recessive
  • sex chromosomes = pair of chromosomes that determine sex of offspring
  • sex-limited traits
  • sex-linked traits
  • shuffling
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • single gene disorders
  • single traits
  • socioeconomic status (SES) = composite of work experience, education & family wealth
  • subculture = cluster within a society, group that differentiates itself from general culture
  • Tay-Sachs disease
  • X chromosome
  • X-linked inheritance = genes on female chromosome, inherit from mother-grandmother
  • Y chromosome
  • Y-linked inheritance = genes on male chromosome, only a few genes present
  • zygote

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