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The Saga Of Dave

August 15, 2012 by · Leave a Comment 

The schizophrenias

Let’s follow Dave.

Dave is a hypothetical typical person. And we’ll follow his entire lifespan. But let’s start with what development is.

Here’s what is included in this lesson:

  • 11 characteristics of development
  • 4 goals for studying development
  • Maturation
  • Lifespan

Read chapter 1 of Berk’s Development Thru The Lifespan

Here are the resources you need:

CLUSTER

SLIDES

TERMS

[dropdown_box expand_text=” Terms To Know” show_more=”More” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • age-graded influences
  • behavior modification
  • behaviorism
  • chronosystem
  • clinical interview
  • clinical method (case study)
  • cognitive-developmental theory
  • cohort effects
  • contexts
  • continuous development
  • correlation coefficient
  • correlational design
  • cross-sectional design
  • dependent variable
  • developmental cognitive neuroscience
  • developmental science
  • discontinuous development
  • ecological systems theory
  • ethnography
  • ethology
  • evolutionary developmental psychology
  • exosystem
  • experimental design
  • history-graded influences
  • independent variable
  • information processing
  • lifespan perspective
  • longitudinal design
  • macrosystem
  • mesosystem
  • microsystem
  • naturalistic observation
  • nature–nurture controversy
  • nonnormative influences
  • normative approach
  • psychoanalytic perspective
  • psychosexual theory
  • random assignment
  • resilience
  • sensitive period
  • sequential designs
  • social learning theory
  • sociocultural theory
  • stage
  • structured interview
  • structured observation
  • theory

[/dropdown_box]

NOTES

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Notes” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • Developmental Psych
    • Lifespan Development
    • Child Development
    • Adolescence
    • Geriatrics
  • Includes all aspects of humans
    • from conception to death
    • life span
  • Constancy and change
    • Consistent
    • Always changing
  • Principles
    • Maturation = rogrammed series of change
    • Maturation must be:
      • Relatively resistant
      • Sequential
      • Universal
    • Early development is elated to later development
      • Not perfect correlation
  • 4 Goals for studying development
    • Describe
    • Explain
    • Predict
    • Modify
  • 11 Primary Characteristics
    • 1. Lifelong
      • Lifespan
      • understanding all aspects of humans
      • from conception to death (life span)
    • 2. Consistent & Dynamic
      • Stability vs Change
        • happy kids, what when grown
        • dynamic: always changing
      • One Course w many sub-paths
      • Cultural norms are not requirements
    • 3. Continuous & discrete
      • Stages: overlapping or separate
      • Everyone goes thru the same steps in same order
      • Universal
      • Sequential
      • Relatively resistant
      • Steps or Waves
    • 4. Multidimensional
      • Many things change at once
      • 3 Domains
      • A. Biosocial Domain
        • How body affected
        • genetics, nutrition & health
        • motor movement, cognition, experience, breastfeeding
      • B. Cognitive Domain
        • Mental processes
        • Knowledge & awareness
        • Sensation & perceptions
        • Language & memory
      • C. Psychosocial Domain
        • Culture & society
        • Social skills
        • Emotional characteristics
    • 5. Multi-disciplinary
      • Medicine & neuroscience
      • Psychology & sociology
      • Chemistry & biology
      • Anthropology
    • 6. Multi-directional
      • Change is not linear
        • failures & successes
      • Both unpredictable & predictable
        • morphogenesis = getting more organized
        • apoptosis = programmed cell death
    • 7. Multi-contextual
      • Many contexts
      • Flexible
      • Rules don’t always apply; even in the same context
      • Social context
      • Rules change from place to place
    • 8. Multi-cultural
      • Each culture has own
      • Traditions
      • Values
      • Tools
      • Age-graded
        • Drive when 16
        • Married by 21
      • History-graded
        • Everyone get at same time
        • Phone, TV, internet
    • 9. Plastic
      • Can change at any point in time
        • Positively or negatively
      • Great potential for change
        • Usually don’t
    • 10. Sensitive
      • Sensitive periods
      • Critical periods
      • Summative & Existential
      • Early experiences cause later problems
    • 11. Interactive
      • Person, heredity & environment
      • Multiple interacting forces
      • Active child
        • Actively influence own develop
      • Passive child
        • At mercy of the environment

 

[/dropdown_box]

 

 QUIZ

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Quiz” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  •  1. Development is both consistent and:
    • a.           uni-dimensional
    • b.           overlapping
    • c.           dynamic
    • d.           passive
  • 2. Maturation must be:
    • a.           overlapping
    • b.           sequential
    • c.           reversible
    • d.           localized
  • 3. Driving when you are 16 is an:
    • a.           age-graded tradition
    • b.           morphogenesis
    • c.           critical period
    • d.           bad idea
  • 4. Children who actively influence own develop are:
    • a.           rapid processors
    • b.           segmented
    • c.           precocious
    • d.           active
  • 5. Things can change at any point, so development is said to be:
    • a.           progressive
    • b.           contextual
    • c.           simplistic
    • d.           plastic

For the answers: Click Here

[/dropdown_box]

 

DISCUSSION ITEM

  • How old is the oldest person you know?

 

 

 

 

 

The Science of Change

August 15, 2012 by · Leave a Comment 

The science of measuring change

How do you measure change?

Developmental psychology is a science of change. It is the systematic study of how people change, including prenatal, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and death. The challenge is how to measure change.

Applying the scientific method to studying change is hard. It works best when the theories are clear, the models precise and the dependent variables operational defined. As we’ll see, this rarely happens.

Here’s what is included in this lesson:

  • Theories vs. models
  • Levels of measurement
  • Criteria for a good theory
  • Documentation & observation
  • Experiments & correlational studies

Read chapter 1 of Berk’s Development Thru The Lifespan

Here are the resources you need:

CLUSTER

SLIDES

TERMS

[dropdown_box expand_text=” Terms To Know” show_more=”More” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • age-graded influences = choices tend to happen at particular ages (marriage, retirement)
  • applied research
  • basic research
  • behavior modification = Thorndike, focus is on changing behaviors
  • behaviorism = reaction to psychoanalysis; emphasis on observable behaviors
  • case history
  • case study
  • causal modeling
  • cause-effect
  • chance
  • characteristics of a theory
  • chronosystem = Bronfenbrenner, cumulative lifetime experiences
  • clinical interview
  • clinical method (case study) = interviews and observations of an individual, infer broader application
  • cognitive-developmental theory = emphasis is on how thinking changes during development
  • cohort effects
  • conclusions
  • constructs
  • contexts = environment within which events occur
  • continuous development = opposite of stage theories, emphasis is on gradual ongoing changes
  • controls
  • correlation
  • correlation coefficient
  • correlational design = experiment without manipulation of independent variable
  • criterion
  • cross-sectional design = study people from different age groups at same time
  • cross-sectional studies
  • data
  • data collection methods
  • delayed treatment
  • dependent variable
  • descriptions
  • developmental cognitive neuroscience = interdisciplinary study of neural changes during development
  • developmental science = scientific study of changes over the entire lifespan
  • discontinuous development = stage theories of development
  • documentation
  • ecological systems theory = Bronfenbrenner; influence of environmental systems & sub-systems
  • emic perspective
  • ethnography
  • ethology = scientific study of animal behavior
  • etic perspective
  • evolutionary developmental psychology = comparative psychology, focus on how behaviors are evolutionarily advantageous; study genetic and ecological mechanisms
  • exosystem = Bronfenbrenner, external influences on microsystems, unemployment, etc.
  • experimental design
  • experimentation
  • explanations
  • group data
  • history-graded influences = correlated with wars, famines and epidemics
  • independent variable
  • inferences
  • information processing = emphasis on active processing of info, not just reacting to it
  • internally consistent
  • inter-rater reliability
  • interval scale
  • interviews
  • leading questions
  • lifespan perspective = focus is on whole life, not focusing only on childhood or adolescencce
  • longitudinal design = measuring the same people over time
  • longitudinal studies
  • macrosystem = Bronfenbrenner, cultural norms, political conditions
  • magnitude
  • mesosystem = Bronfenbrenner, interactions between mircosystems
  • meta-analysis
  • microsystem = Bronfenbrenner, where you live, family, peers
  • model
  • Morgan’s Cannon
  • naturalistic observation
  • nature–nurture controversy = either-or argument for heredity or environment
  • necessary
  • negative correlation
  • nominal scale
  • nonnormative influences = things that happen to one person
  • normal curve
  • normative approach = use normal curve to describe development by what most can do at given age
  • observations
  • observer effect
  • open-ended questions
  • operational definition
  • ordinal scale
  • organizing frameworks
  • outcome measure
  • paired observations
  • participant observation
  • positive correlation
  • practice effects
  • predictor
  • properties
  • psychoanalytic perspective = Freud’s psychodynamic theory of unconscious motivations
  • psychosexual theory = Freud, stages of childhood development: oral, anal, phallic, latency & genital
  • qualitative
  • quantitative
  • questionnaires
  • random assignment
  • random selection
  • rank scale
  • ratio scale
  • repeated measures
  • replication
  • resilience = ability to recover from negative influence
  • scientific method
  • script
  • self-report
  • sensitive period = critical period, phase when a small dose can cause great damage
  • sequential designs
  • shared variance
  • sign
  • significance
  • small number of assumptions
  • social learning theory = Bandura, people learn in a social context, a reciprocal interaction
  • sociocultural theory = Vygotsky, develop first on social level, then on individual levels
  • split-plot
  • stage = assumes everyone goes through same phases in the same order
  • structured interview
  • structured observation
  • subject loss
  • sufficient
  • summarize facts
  • symmetrical
  • systematic underrepresentation
  • testable hypotheses
  • theory
  • useful
  • variables
  • verification
  • zero correlation

[/dropdown_box]

 

NOTES

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Notes” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • Scientific Method
    • Observations = what senses tell
    • Inferences = conclusions drawn
    •  Theories: constructs
    • Models: variables
  •  Theories include:
    • Explanations
    • Descriptions
    • Predictions
  •  6 Characteristics of a theory
    • 1. Clear
      • Skinner is clear
      • Piaget is not
    • 2. Useful
      • Skinner & Piaget are useful
    • 3. Summarize facts
      • Organizing frameworks
      • Babylonian creation story
      • Jewish creation story
      • Theory of evolution
    • 4. Small number of assumptions
      • Morgan’s Cannon
    • 5. Internally consistent
      • Piaget is not consistent; written over many years
    • 6. Testable hypotheses
  • Verification: Did you see that?
  • Replication: Do it again?
    • Application:
      • What foods to eat
      • Acupuncture
      • Spankin
  • Theories determine
    • Which variables to study
    • What they look like (properties)
    • How they inter-relate
    • How to measure them
  •  Operational Definitions
    • Define in terms of operations
    • What is done
  • Chance & not chance
    • Normal curve
    • Symmetrical
    • Most people in the middle
  • 4 ways to use numbers
    • Nominal = use as names
    • Ordinal = place, rank or rating
    • Interval = count
    • Ratio = math numbers
  • Developmental Research
    • Hard to measure change
    • Too fast
    • Too slow
  • Principles
    • Qualitative vs quantitative
    • How ask question makes diff
    • Systematic underrepresentation
    • Lack of language
    • Some important behaviors are rare
  • Approaches to Research
    • Basic = improve theory
    • Applied = improve application
  • Data Collection Methods
    • 1. Documentation
      • Baby biographies
      • Diaries
    • 2. Observation
      • A. Naturalistic observation
        • Advantages
          • Non-lab environment
          • Less “artificial”
        • Disadvantages
          • Observer effect
          • Affected by presence of observers
      • B. Ethnography
        • in-depth descript of how live
        • emic perspective (insider’s)
        • etic perspective (outsider’s)
        • participant observation (long-term field study)
      • C. Structured observation
        • Advantages
          • Relatively naturalistic
          • Some lab-based controls
        • Disadvantages
          • Time consuming
          • Subjective results
          • Inter-rater reliability
      • D. Case history (case study)
        • Freud
      • E. Cohort effects
        • Baby Boomers
    • 3. Self-report
      • A. Questionnaires
        • Given to parents, friends, teacher…
        • Advantages
          • Convenient
          • Cheap
        • Disadvantages
          • Social desirability
          • Lack of objectivity
      • B. Interviews
        • Clinical interviews
        • Structured interviews
        • Targeted data (specific questions, open-ended)
        • Advantages
          • Can follow up kid’s answers
          • Probe topics of interest
          • Not stuck with ‘script’
        • Disadvantages
          • Diff. questions for each child
          • Difficult to generalize results
          • Experimenter demands
          • Leading questions
    • 4. Correlation
      • Relationship between variables
      • Paired observations
      • Simple correlations & used in Causal Modeling
      • Not prove cause-effect
        • Necessary, not sufficient
        • 4 possible interpretations
          • A can cause B
          • B can cause A
          • C can cause A & B
          • Chance
      • Significance
        • Relationship unlikely to be due to chance
        • Unlikely, not impossible
        • Shared variance: what have in common
      • Examples
        • Skill in baseball and shoe size
        • Shirt length and stock market prices
        • Ice cream sales and rates of drowning
        • Length of marriage and male baldness
        • Cause-effect inferences are at your own risk
      • Correlation Coefficient
        • Sign
          • Positive = When X goes up, Y goes up
          • Negative = When X goes up, Y goes down
          • Zero = When X goes up, Y wanders aimlessly
        • Magnitude
          • Between -1 and +1
          • Amount of relationship
    • 5. Experimentation
      • Observations (data)
      • Independent variable
        • Experimenter controls variable
        • Independent of the subject
        • Predictor
      • Dependent variable
        • Under control of subject
        • Outcome measure
        • Criterion
      • Random selection
        • Equal likelihood of being studied
      • Random assignment
        • Equal chance of getting wonder cure
      • Cause and effect inferences
        • More comfortable
        • Still inferring
    • 6. Meta-analysis
      • Comparing theories
  • Five Experimental Designs
    • A. Cross-sectional studies
      • Different groups, same time
      • 10, 20, 30 and 40 year olds
      • 1st, 3rd and 5th graders
      • Advantages
        • Snapshot
        • Least expensive
        • Quick estimate of developmental function
      • Disadvantages
        • Group data, not individual
        • Don’t know what will happen next
        • Cohort effects = not equivalent groups
        • Reading program
        • Year born
    • B. Longitudinal studies
      • Longitudinal = same group over time
      • Advantages
        • Avoid cohort effects
        • Act as own control
      • Disadvantages
        • Time consuming
        • Expensive
        • Subject loss; die, move away, quit
        • Practice effects
          • repeated exposure to a test situation
    • C. Split-Plot
      • Random assign to field (group)
      • Repeated measures (rows)
    • D. Sequential designs
      • Data collected as go
    • E. Delayed treatment
      • Group 1 right now
      • Group 2 in 6 months

[/dropdown_box]

 

 QUIZ

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Quiz” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • 1. In this scale of measurement, numbers indicate rank or order:
    • a.           nominal
    • b.           ordinal
    • c.           interval
    • d.           ratio
  • 2. Which correlation coefficient show the most relationship:
    • a.           .55
    • b.           .35
    • c.           -.77
    • d.           3.14
  • 3. Which equal opportunity to be in the study:
    • a.           random number generator
    • b.           random consolidation
    • c.           random assignment
    • d.           random selection
  • 4. The Baby Boomers are a:
    • a.           split-plot
    • b.           cohort
    • c.           SES
    • d.           gaggle
  • 5. Models are composed of:
    • a.           constructs
    • b.           variables
    • c.           theories
    • d.           ideas

For the answers: Click Here

[/dropdown_box]

 

DISCUSSION ITEM

  • What part of life do you think has the greatest amount of change?

 

 

Genetics

August 14, 2012 by · Leave a Comment 

Genetics: building blocks of life

The building blocks of heredity.

Genetics is what makes us unique. There is a shuffling of genes in the making of sperm & eggs. This makes each egg and sperm different from all the rest. Offspring from the same mother and father have the same building blocks but each house (so to speak) is different.

Then when the unique sperm meets a unique egg, there is more matching and mismatching. This process is more systematic, as Mendel showed. But all these connections between parental genetic contributions give us great diversity in our genetic makeup.

Here’s what is included in this lesson:

  • Mendel
  • dominant-recessive
  • autosomal genes
  • sex-linked genes
  • polygenic traits

Read chapter 2 of Berk’s Development Thru The Lifespan

Here are the resources you need:

CLUSTER

SLIDES

TERMS

[dropdown_box expand_text=” Terms To Know” show_more=”More” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • 25,000 genes
  • 46 chromosomes
  • affected parent
  • albinism
  • allele
  • asthma
  • autosomal traits
  • autosome
  • canalization = robustness, strongly canalized behaviors develop in many different environments
  • cancer
  • carrier
  • chromosomes = combination of DNA, RNA and protein; human cells have 46 (23 pairs); holds genes
  • cluster
  • Coffin-Lowry syndrome
  • collectivist societies = cultures that value group achievement; opposite of individualism
  • cystic fibrosis
  • deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) = molecule of genetic code, double-helix structure
  • dominant
  • dominant–recessive inheritance = Medelian theory, genes don’t mix, win-lose (freckles, no-freckles)
  • environmental influence
  • epigenesis = assumes relationship between genetics and environment is bidirectional
  • essential traits
  • experimental study of genetics
  • extended-family household = children parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles; all in one house
  • fraternal twins (dizygotic) = two fertilized eggs, different gene combination, same environment
  • gametes = reproductive cells (sperm and egg)
  • gene = short piece of genetic code (DNA and RNA)
  • genes
  • genetic counseling = helping patients at risk for inherited disorders to evaluate options
  • genetic–environmental correlation = amount both factors contribute to a trait
  • genetics
  • genomic imprinting = non-Mendelian inheritance, genes are chemically turned on or off
  • genotype = genetic composition
  • hemophilia
  • hepatic enzyme
  • hereditary factors
  • heritability estimate = how much trait is due to genetics
  • heterozygous
  • heterozygous = each parent gives different allele (freckles & no-freckles)
  • homozygous = each parent gives same allele (freckles gene from each)
  • Huntington’s disease
  • hypertension
  • identical twins (monozygotic) = single fertilized cell divides, each becomes a child
  • incomplete dominance = mixing of two traits, each halfway; might not exist in humans
  • incomplete recessive
  • individualistic societies = cultures that value personal achievement; opposite of collectivism
  • inheritance
  • kinship studies = compare family characteristics; including identical twin studies
  • male pattern baldness
  • meiosis = replication of gonad cells, shuffles genes in each chromosome pair, makes 4 gametes with only 23 chromosomes, each is a unique combination of parents” genetic material
  • Mendel, Gregor
  • Mendel’s peas
  • mitosis = cell replication process of making two identical copies
  • mood disorders
  • multifactorial
  • multiple mutations
  • multiple sclerosis
  • mutation
  • niche-picking = tendency to pick activities that match inherited traits
  • obesity
  • offspring
  • phenotype = observation characteristics
  • PKU (Phenylketonuria)
  • polygencic disorders
  • polygenic inheritance = traits based on multiple genes
  • prenatal diagnostic methods = testing for diseases and conditions before birth
  • progeny
  • public policies = governmental programs and laws
  • range of reaction = portion of gene-environment interaction due to genetics
  • recessive
  • sex chromosomes = pair of chromosomes that determine sex of offspring
  • sex-limited traits
  • sex-linked traits
  • shuffling
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • single gene disorders
  • single traits
  • socioeconomic status (SES) = composite of work experience, education & family wealth
  • subculture = cluster within a society, group that differentiates itself from general culture
  • Tay-Sachs disease
  • X chromosome
  • X-linked inheritance = genes on female chromosome, inherit from mother-grandmother
  • Y chromosome
  • Y-linked inheritance = genes on male chromosome, only a few genes present
  • zygote

[/dropdown_box]

NOTES

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Notes” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • Genetics
  • Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
    • 1st experimental study genetics
    • Took long walks, found unusual ornamental plant
    • Planted it next to typical variety
    • Grew progeny side by side
    • Found
      • Offspring show essential traits of parents
      • Not influenced by environment
      • Each transmits only half its hereditary factors to its offspring
      • Different offspring of same parents receive diff set of hereditary factors
      • Traits inherited in certain ratios
      • Genes dominant or recessive
      • Factors are inherited intact
  • Humans
    • 46 chromosomes
    • 23 from each; paired
    • 25,000 genes (all together)
    • Two copies, 1 from each
    • Matching is by chance
      • Shuffling
      • Unique combination
    • Genes affect structures
    • No single gene causes any behavior
  • Dominant = single copy from either parent carries trait
    • Heterozygous = coded differently
  • Recessive
    • Copy from each parent required
    • Can unknowingly carry disease
    • Can be hidden for generations
    • Affected parent (Dad or Mum)
    • All children have equal chance of inheritance
  • Dominant-Recessive
    • Dominant Wins ¾ Times
    • Dominant Dominant
    • Dominant Recessive
    • Recessive Dominant
    • Recessive Recessive
  • Mendel’s peas
    • smooth or wrinkled
    • green or yellow
    • short or tall
  • Incomplete Recessive
    • In some flowers
    • Red and white produce pink
  • In humans
    • Most cases that look incomplete
    • Multiple mutations
      • Tay-Sachs disease
        • 2 different recessive mutations
      • Sickle Cell Anemia
        • Carriers show no symptoms
        • Unless climb mountains (low oxygen)
  • Single Traits
    • 1. Autosomal Traits
      • Not X or Y
      • Autosomal = equal in each sex
        • Single gene on an autosome (non-sex chromosome)
      • Dominant Trait Examples:
        • Huntington’s disease
        • Neurological disease
        • Many copies of gene segment
        • Recessive Trait Examples:
          • Albinism
          • Cystic Fibrosis
      • Affected parent (Dad or Mum)
        • Children have 50% of inheriting one mutated allele
        • Either get yours or spouse’s
        • Makes you a carrier
      • Carrier
        • One mutated allele
        • One normal allele
        • Allele = gene option (green or yellow)
        • Put two carriers together
          • 25% chance will transmit mutated gene
          • 1 will be unaffected
          • 2 will be carriers
          • 1 will be affected
          • Get 2 bad copies
    • 2. Sex-Linked Traits
      • Sex-linked = appear in only one sex
      • X-Chromosome Linked
        • Females
        • Inherit X from mother
        • Inherit X from father’s mother
        • Healthy copy beats unhealthy
        • Problems in women only when both copies flawed
          • Rare
        • Have 1 bad copy = carrier
        • Have 2 bad copies = show trait
      • Y-Chromosome
        • Most genes come in pairs
        • Except males
        • One Y chromosome
        • One X chromosome
        • Get X chrom. from mother
        • Only one copy
        • No backup
      • Y-Linked Traits
        • Only in men
        • Traits passed from father to son
        • Few genes on Y chromosome
        • Coffin-Lowry Syndrome
          • Mutation in ribosomal protein gene
          • Mental retardation
          • Short stature
          • Craniofacial
          • Skeleton
        • Male Pattern Baldness
          • Begins in front, move backward
          • M shape, then U-shaped
          • Current best gues
          • Susceptibility Y-linked; can pass on to son
          • Hair structure X-linked
    • 3. Sex-limited Traits
      • Autosomal traits that are expressed differently in males & females
      • Sex-limited = appear in both
      • Male & female elephant seals
  • Single Gene Disorders
    • 4000+
    • Cystic Fibrosis
    • Hemophilia
    • Sickle cell
    • PKU (Phenylketonuria)
      • Autosomal Recession
      • 100% genetic
      • Nonfunctional hepatic enzyme
      • Can’t process amino acid (phenylalanine)
      • Can lead to
        • mental retardation & seizures
        • death at young age
      • Diet without substances that need enzyme
        • 100% environment
      • Two factors
      • Gene
      • Diet
  • Polygencic Disorders
    • Complex & multifactorial
    • Multiple genes in combination
      • 10 genes involved in eye color
    • Cluster in families
      • No clear pattern
      • Run in families
    • Also lifestyle and environment
    • Examples
      • Multiple Sclerosis
      • Heart disease & hypertension
      • Asthma
      • Mood disorders
      • Cleft palate
      • Obesity
      • Cancer

 

[/dropdown_box]

 

 QUIZ

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Quiz” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  •  1. Who 1st studied genetics experimentally:
    • a.           Mendel
    • b.           Erikson
    • c.           Freud
    • d.           Galen
  •  2. Y-linked traits occur only in:
    • a.           spring
    • b.           boys
    • c.           girls
    • d.           trick question; boys & girls
  •  3. A gene option (green-yellow flowers) is an:
    • a.           occipita
    • b.           ablator
    • c.           ovum
    • d.           allele
  • 4. In humans, most major diseases are:
    • a.           orthogonal
    • b.           polygenic
    • c.           apotosic
    • d.           Y-linked
  • 5. What condition is caused by a single dominant gene:
    • a.           cystic fibrosis
    • b.           heart disease
    • c.           Huntington’s
    • d.           albinism

For the answers: Click Here

[/dropdown_box]

 

DISCUSSION ITEM

  • How far back can you trace your ancestry?

 

 

 

 

 

Prenatal

August 13, 2012 by · Leave a Comment 

prenatal exam

The human nest.

Prenatal development is both complicated and fast paced. In only 40 weeks, a single fertilized egg matures into a baby. We explore the question: when does life begin?

Here’s what is included in this lesson:

  • Ovulation
  • Fertilization
  • Implantation
  • Germinal stage
  • Embryonic stage
  • Fetal stage

Read chapter 3 of Berk’s Development Thru The Lifespan

Here are the resources you need:

CLUSTER

SLIDES

TERMS

[dropdown_box expand_text=” Terms To Know” show_more=”More” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • 300 bones
  • 70+ reflexes
  • age of viability = somewhere about 6 months pregnant, fetus can survive if born
  • alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) = alcohol-related developmental disabilities
  • amnion = fluid-filled sac that holds developing fetus
  • anoxia = low oxygen; potential cause of brain damage during delivery
  • Apgar Scale = evaluation of newborns on complexion, pulse, reflexes, activity & respiration
  • blastocyst
  • blastula
  • breech position = non-head-first birth (buttocks or feet)
  • cancer
  • cervix
  • cesarean delivery = surgical delivery of babies through abdominal wall, typically in distress
  • chorion = outermost layer of an embryo, developed by follicle cells of ovary
  • chromosomes
  • cilia
  • cleavage
  • corpus luteum
  • DNA
  • egg
  • ejaculatation
  • embryo = first 8 weeks of prenatal development
  • embryo stage
  • enzymes
  • expected date of delivery
  • expel
  • fallopian tube
  • fallopian tube contractions
  • female sex cells
  • fertilization
  • fertilized egg
  • fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) = continuum of disorders cause by prenatal alcohol exposure
  • fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) = prenatal exposure to alcohol, leading cause of mental retardation
  • fetal monitors = monitors fetal heart rate & mother’s uterine contractions
  • fetal stage
  • fetus = from week 8-40 of prenatal development
  • fimbria
  • follicle
  • fraternal twins
  • FSH (folicle stimulating)
  • full term
  • germinal stage
  • hCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin)
  • hormones
  • human placental lactogen (HPL)
  • implantation
  • infant mortality = death of infant under 1 year old
  • inflammation
  • irregular ovulation
  • lanugo = soft fine hair on fetus, normally disappears before birth
  • last menses period (LMP)
  • LH (luteinizing hormone)
  • ligaments
  • menstrual period
  • morula
  • natural childbirth (prepared) = 1930’s movement, noninvasive methods to reduce delivery pain
  • Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) = test for infant 3 days to 4 weeks, checklist
  • neural tube = develops into spinal cord and brain
  • non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep = 3 sleep stages that precede REM
  • ova (plural)
  • ovarian stem cells
  • ovaries
  • ovulation
  • ovum
  • partial fetal alcohol syndrome (p-FAS) = prenatal alcohol exposure: CNS damage & growth deficiency
  • placenta = organ that filters mother’s blood supply for developing fetus
  • preterm infants
  • progesterone
  • rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep = stage of sleep that includes vivid dreams & sleep paralysis
  • reflex = smallest amount of behavior, sensory neuron goes to spinal cord & triggers motor neuron
  • Rh factor incompatibility = can be a problem in delivery with fetus & mother’s blood come in contact
  • scar tissue & cysts
  • small-for-date infants = below 10th percentile in weight
  • sperm
  • sperm head
  • sperm middle
  • sperm tail
  • states of arousal = levels of consciousness, including sleep
  • sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) = unexpected death of infant under age 1
  • surfactant
  • teratogen = any substance that interferes with embryo development
  • testicles
  • trimesters = 40 weeks of pregnancy divided into 3 sections
  • trophoblast
  • tubal ectopic pregnancy
  • umbilical cord = connects fetus and placenta
  • unfertilized egg
  • uterine contractions
  • uterus
  • vagina
  • vernix = vernix caseosa, white coating on newborn’s skin, waxy texture
  • viability
  • visual acuity = clearness, focus; newborn have limited vision
  • XX
  • XY
  • zygote

 

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NOTES

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Notes” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • Female sex cells
    • Eggs & Ovaries
    • Left & right
    • Attached to uterus by ligaments
      • Not attached to fallopian tubes
    • 250k cells in each at birth
      • Limited supply
      • Ovarian stem cells add more
  • Classic Example
    • Hormones stimulate monthly
      • FSH (folicle stimulating)
      • LH (luteinizing hormone)
    • One ovary ovulates
      • Randomly left or right
    • Release one egg
    • Follicle swells with fluid
    • Follicle erupts
    • Mature egg pushed thru wall
      • Fluid & cell
    • Fallopian tube fimbria (fringe)
      • Fill with blood
      • Brushes egg into tube
    • Fallopian tube contractions move egg along toward uterus
    • If unfertilized, egg moves to uterus, expelled
    • If fertilized, egg moves to uterus
      • Subdividing as it goes
      • Implanted
  • In real life
    • Can release more than one egg
      • Fraternal twins
      • Each can have its own Dad
    • Ovulate with no menstrual period
      • Can ovulate but no egg
    • Irregular ovulation
    • Normal cycle varies between folk
      • 21-35 days typical
    • Normal cycle can vary in you
    • Pain when ovulation begins
    • Pain when egg pushed out
    • Pain from fallopian contractions
    • Pain from uterine contractions
  • Ovum (ova is plural)
    • Grain of sand
    • 23 chromosomes
    • 22 match 22 of men
    • 23rd is X chromosome
  • Male sex cells
    • Testicles
    • Outside ovaries
    • Sperm factories
  • Sperm
    • Produced daily
    • Kept alive by nurse cells
    • Takes 2-3 months to mature
    • Stored for release
    • Die daily
    • 23 chromosomes
      • 22 match the 22 of women
      • 23rd determines sex
        • X or Y
        • Girl (XX) or boy (XY)
    • 3 parts
      • Head; covered with enzymes
      • Middle (connector)
      • Tail
  • Process
    • Sperm ejaculate 300 million
    • Enter vagina
    • 20% die immediately
    • Can live 4-5 days
    • 10% make it through cervix; 3 million
    • Must swim upstream
    • Go to correct fallopian tube
  • Fallopian tubes
    • About width of pencil
    • Collect & transport zygote
    • Go from ovary to uterus
    • Long, thin tubes
    • 2 (left & right)
  • Fimbria = fringe
    • collection end of tube
    • finger-like projections
    • actively go and get egg
  • Cilia = tiny hair-like fibers
    • “feed” it into fallopian tube
  • Problems:
    • tubal ectopic pregnancies
    • inflammation (infection)
    • cancer (extremely rare)
    • scar tissue (adhesions)
    • cysts
    • fertilization occurs in fallopian tube
  • Classic Example
    • Good swimmers
    • 1000 reach ovum
    • 1 binds with egg
    • Penetrates egg
    • Swells in size
    • Releases DNA
    • Chromosomes line up
    • Pairs connect
    • Dominant-recessive
    • Unique combinations
    • Takes 24 hours
  • Germinal Stage Week 1 & 2
    • Week 1
    • Fertilization to implantation
    • Zygote = 1 fertilized egg
      • Surrounded by plasma membrane
      • Mother’s body changes
      • Uterine lining is developing
    • Cleavage
      • partitions zygote into 2 cells
      • 30 hours after fertilization
    • Zygote remains the same size
      • Component cells are smaller
    • Morula
      • Solid ball of 32 cells
      • Day 4-5 but still same size
    • Blastula
      • Same size as original cell
      • Hollow ball of 250+ cells
      • Filled with fluid
      • 2 layers
        • Inner layer = blastocyst
          • becomes embryo
        • Outer layer = trophoblast
          • attaches itself to uterine wall = implantation
    • Implantation
      • Blastula arrives at uterus
  • Day 7-8
    • Stays in uterus a couple of days
    • Imbeds itself in uterine wall
  • Day 11-14
    • Blastula secretes hormones
    • hCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin)
    • Maintains corpus luteum
    • Corpus luteum secretes progesterone for 1st trimester
      • human placental lactogen (HPL)
    • Anti-insulin properties
    • Facilitates fetus’ energy supply
    • Mother may notice missed period
    • Conception = fertilization or implantation?
  • Embryo Stage Week 3-8
  • Fetal Stage Week 9-39
    • Week 24 (6 months)
      • 50% viability
      • Lungs produce surfactant
      • Surfactant
        • keeps lungs air sacs from collapsing when we exhale
    • Week 26-27 (3rd trimester)
      • 85% viability
      • 1.5-2 pounds, 10 inches
    • Week 28 (7 months)
      • Brain surface is wrinkled
      • Breathing & body temp controlled by brain
    • Week 32 (8 months
      • Eyes open when alert
      • Closed when sleeping
      • Eye color is blue
        • regardless of permanent color
        • requires exposure to light
    • Week 39-40
      • 98% viability
      • Expected date of delivery
      • 280 days from last menses period (LMP)
      • 8 pounds, 20 inches
    • Week 40-42
      • full term
      • 70+ reflexes
      • has 300 bones
      • adults have 206 (some fuse together)

 

[/dropdown_box]

 

 QUIZ

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Quiz” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • 1. Which weeks are the fetal stage of development:
    • a.           1-4
    • b.           3-11
    • c.           9-40
    • d.           10-49
  • 2. A solid ball of 32 cells is called a:
    • a.           ovumento
    • b.           morula
    • c.           zygote
    • d.           cilia
  • 3. When is a fetus 50% viable?
    • a.           week 18
    • b.           week 24
    • c.           week 28
    • d.           week 32
  • 4. If 300 million sperm enter the vagina, how many reach the ovum?
    • a.           1
    • b.           ~1000
      c.           ~10,000
    • d.           ~100,000
  • 5. Typically, fertilization occurs in the:
    • a.           fallopian tube
    • b.           vagina
    • c.           uterus
    • d.           cervix

For the answers: Click Here

[/dropdown_box]

 

DISCUSSION ITEM

  • What types of birth control are acceptable to you?

 

 

 

 

Birth

August 12, 2012 by · Leave a Comment 

Labor & delivery

 Choosing a delivery system.

Birth is a travelogue, a mystery and a grand entrance. As the fetus exits the womb, it travels from the uterus, through the narrow passage of the cervix, down through the vagina, turns it’s head to one side to corkscrew through the pelvic circle of bones, up toward the sky and turns it’s head again to right itself. Congratulations! You made it into the world.

Here’s what is included in this lesson:

  • Reflexes
  • Birthing options
  • Delivery process
  • Delivery complications

Read chapter 4 of Berk’s Development Thru The Lifespan

Here are the resources you need:

CLUSTER

SLIDES

TERMS

[dropdown_box expand_text=” Terms To Know” show_more=”More” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • 200 words  & walking
  • 4000 words & share
  • accommodation = Piaget, adding to schema categories
  • adaptation = adjusting to environment
  • all-nothing
  • arousal
  • assimilation = Piaget, adding information to current schema
  • attention
  • autobiographical memory = episodic memory, what you did on summer vacation
  • babbling = repetitive consonant sounds, goes with sitting up, 6 months
  • Babinski’s reflex
  • Bauer’s reflex
  • central executive = cognitive process that coordinates all mental activity
  • child-directed speech (CDS) = parents give clear, exaggerated speech, helps learn language
  • circular reaction = repeat event on purpose, drop bottle accidently, do again on purpose
  • cognition
  • color vision
  • consciousness
  • contrast & complexity
  • cooing = first language-like sounds, goes with rolling over, 3 months old
  • core knowledge perspective = hypothetical innate knowledge systems
  • crawl & say “dada”
  • curves & patterns
  • deferred imitation = can recall & model behavior of model not there
  • developmental quotient (DQ) = infant intelligence tests, unreliable
  • developmentally appropriate practice = guidelines of proper child care services
  • doll eyes
  • expressive style of language = use language to talk about feelings
  • faces
  • fencing reflex
  • grasping reflex
  • habituation
  • hallmarks
  • Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) = checklist for home eval.
  • imprinting
  • inattention blindness
  • infant perception
  • infantile amnesia = inability to recall pre-verbal phase of life
  • infantile reflexes
  • intelligence quotient (IQ) = widely used predictor of school success
  • intentional behavior (goal-directed) = reaching-touching, solving simple problems
  • irreversible coma
  • joint attention = child & parent attend to same object
  • language acquisition device (LAD) = hypothetical innate language processor
  • laugh out loud
  • life-long reflexes
  • long-term memory = unknown capacity, less permanent than thought
  • Lorenz, Konrad
  • make-believe play = act out scenes, dress up, pretend cooking, being a monkey
  • mental representation = internal symbols that can be manipulated
  • mental strategies = well-practiced plans of how to achieve goals
  • Moro reflex
  • normal distribution = symmetrical distribution of population scores, chance
  • object permanence = Piaget, learning out of sight is not out of existence
  • organization = Piaget, development of cognitive representations
  • overextension = using Dog for all animals
  • parachute reflex
  • perception
  • prune sounds
  • recall = recollection from a cue; listing items
  • recognition = selecting from available choices; multiple choice items
  • referential style of language = use language to get objects
  • reflexes
  • reticular formation
  • rollover & coo
  • rooting reflex
  • scheme = Piaget, mental representation
  • sensorimotor stage = Piaget’s 1st stage of development, coordination of motor skills
  • sensory register = separate buffers for vision and hearing, disappears if not attended to
  • sit up & babble
  • sleep thru night
  • stand up & single words
  • standardization = basing test interpretation on the normal curve
  • startle response
  • stepping reflex
  • sucking reflex
  • telegraphic speech
  • underextension = use Dog for family pet but not other dogs
  • vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR)
  • violation-of-expectation method = facial expressions as dependent variable to surprise stimuli
  • visual acuity
  • working memory (short-term) = things currently focused on, keep active with rehearsal
  • zone of proximal development = Vygotsky, what can do without help & what can do with help

 

[/dropdown_box]

NOTES

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Notes” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  •  Prenatal Development
    • Prenatal Vulnerabilities
      • teratogen = causes prenatal damage
    • Teratogens
      • Environmental factor
      • Interfere with development
      • Medication & drugs
      • Substance
      • Disease
    • Harm depends on:
      • Interaction w other factors
      • Age of prenatal organism
      • Genetic predisposition
      • Dose
      • Sensitive period
        • Especially vulnerable
      • Critical period
        • Damage has big impact
        • Can be used interchangeably
  • Critical Periods
    • 1. Implantation
      • 10 to14 days after conception
      • Have common blood supply
      • Whatever’s in mom’s blood crosses
    • 2. Week 3.5 to 4.5
      • Closure of the neural tube
      • Central nervous system vulnerable throughout pregnancy
    • 3. Central nervous system
      • Vulnerable throughout pregnancy
  • Major Teratogens
    • Folate Deficiency
      • Lack of folic acid
      • Neural tube defects
      • Slow growth rate
      • Premature
    • Poisons
    • Radiation
    • Mercury
    • Lead
    • PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyl)
      • Coolants
    • Bacterial & Parasitic Diseases
      • Toxoplasmosis
      • Cats
    • Viruses
      • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
      • Rubella (German measles)
      • Varicella (chickenpox)
        • Highly infectious disease
          • 95% of Americans have had it
          • 90% of pregnant women immune
          • 1 out of 2,000 develop during pregnancy
        • A. If in pregnancy (week 1-20)
          • 2% chance of defects
          • Congenital varicella syndrome
          • Scars
          • Malformed and paralyzed limbs
        • B. Newborn period
          • 5 days before to 2 after birth
          • About 25 % newborns become infected
          • About 30% of infected babies will die if not treated
  • Parental Use Of:
    • Over The Counter Drugs
      • Aspirin
        • If used repeatedly
        • Death near birth
        • Low birth weight
        • Poor motor development
        • Lower IQ
      • Caffeine
        • 3 cups of coffee day
        • Low birth weight
        • Prematurity
        • Miscarriage
        • Newborn withdrawal symptoms
      • Smoking during pregnancy
        • Impaired breathing w. sleep
        • Cancer later in childhood
        • Infant death
        • Low birth weight
        • Prematurity
        • Miscarriage
      • Alcohol
        • Infant brains are especially sensitive to alcohol
        • Suppress release of glutamate
          • brain’s main excitatory
          • neurons receive less excitation and undergo apoptosis
        • Breaks down more slowly
          • levels remain high longer
          • immature liver
        • Worse if born to alcoholic mom
          • drink 4-5+ drinks/day
        • No amount of alcohol is safe
      • Fetal alcohol syndrome
        • Best known non-genetic cause of mental retardation (brain damage)
        • (3 in 1,000)
        • Impaired motor coordination
        • Facial abnormalities
        • Heat defects
        • ADHD
    • Prescription Drugs
      • Thalidomide
        • Anti-nausea & sedative
        • Used in 1960’s
        • Severe limb deformations
        • Sensitive period: Week 4-6
      • Phenytoin (or Dilantin)
        • Anti-convulsive (anti-seizure)
        • Used to treat epilepsy
        • 10% chance of birth defects
        • If taken in the first trimester
      • Antidepressant drugs
        • heart problems
    • Psychoactive Drugs
      • Cocaine
        • Impacts
          • Mother’s egg
          • Father’s sperm
          • Prenatal environment
        • Deformed heart, genital, kidney
        • Brain hemorrhages & seizures
        • Born drug-addicted
        • Crack worst:
          • low birth weight
        • CNS damage
        • “Crack baby”
      • Marijuana
        • Low birth weight
        • Mixed finding
    • Semi-Teratogen
      • Contributing factors
      • # of previous births
      • RH incompatibility
      • Emotional Stress
      • Maternal age
      • Nutrition
  • Stages of Childbirth
    • Pre-Stage
      • Lightening
      • Fetus “drops” into pelvis
      • Bloody show
        • Small amount of bloody-mucus
      • Water breaks
        • Membrane of amniotic sac
        • Amniotic fluid
        • Feels like pop, trickle or gush
        • 400 ml (14 ounces)
    • Stage 1
      • Dilation & Cervical Effacement
        • 1st child 12-14 hours
        • 2nd child+ 4-6 hours
      • Cervix dilation & effacement
        • Starting at 3-4 cm
        • Full dilation = 10 cm
        • Fetus head = ~10 cm
      • Contraction
        • Uterine muscles
        • Upper to lower uterus
        • Shorten upper segment
        • Draw lower segment upward
    • Stage 2
      • Cervix is fully dilated
      • Ends when the baby is born
      • Timing
        • 1st child 50 minutes
        • 2nd child+ 20 minutes
      • Cervix pressure increases
      • Ferguson reflex
      • Increased uterine contractions
      • Head is fully engaged in pelvis
      • Head goes below pubic arch
      • Mother “bears down” or pushing
      • Head is down but sideways
      • Head turns face down
      • Baby moves
        • down under pelvis bone
        • then up
      • Crowning
        • Intense stretching & burning
        • See the head
      • Helping you out
        • Forceps
        • Vacuum
    • Stage 3
      • After birth before placenta
      • 10-12 minutes
      • 30+ minutes, worry
      • Separates from uterine wall
      • Clamp umbilical cord
        • 1-5 minutes
        • Shorter decreases anemia risk
        • Longer increases jaundice risk
        • Cutting is painless (no nerves)
      • Active management
        • Uterotonic drug
        • 1 min after delivery
        • Prevents postpartum hemorrhage
    • Stage 4
      • Birth to 6 weeks old
      • Postpartum period
      • AKA, puerperium
  • Initiation Rites
    • Naming ceremonies
    • Eat the placenta
    • Maternal leave
    • Circumcision
    • Baptism
  • Expectations
  • Reality
    • Misshaped head
    • Wrinkled
    • Purple
    • Needy
    • Molding
      • As through birth canal
      • Head becomes more elongated
      • Worse in 1st child
  • Birthing Options
    • Unassisted Birth
      • No professionals present
    • Partner, mother, grandparents
    • Mother & Partner Birth
    • Solo Birth
  • Delivery
    • Vertex Delivery
    • Six phases of head-first delivery
      • 1. Head facing sideways
      • 2. Descent & flexing of head
      • 3. Head rotation 90-degrees
        • Face mother’s rectum
      • 4. Head extends out birth canal
        • Head tilts forward
        • Crown of head leads way
      • 5. Restitution
        • Head turn 45-degrees
        • Restore relationship w shoulders (which are angled)
      • 6. External rotation
        • Shoulders follow head; corkscrew movement
    • Water Birth
      • Reduce need for analgesia
      • Warm water tubs
      • Available in hospitals & birthing centers
  • Delivery en caul
    • Born with amniotic sac in tact
    • Membranes are easily broken
    • Wiped away
    • Rare
    • Doctor breaks sac before birth
  • Induction
    • Distance from hospital
    • Oxytocin: induce uterine contractions
  • Vaginal Birth
    • Large head compared to pelvis
    • Not always possible
  • Cesarean section
    • Indicated if:
      • maternal HIV/AIDS
      • medical conditions
      • fetal abnormality
      • breech position
      • fetal distress

[/dropdown_box]

 

 QUIZ

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Quiz” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • 1. Environmental factors that interfere with development are called:
    • a.           teratogens
    • b.           restituions
    • c.           mutations
    • d.           all of the above
  •  2. When your “water breaks” what comes out:
    • a.           amniotic fluid
    • b.           cerebral fluid
    • c.           uterine wall
    • d.           cervical wall
  •  3. If both parents are users, cocaine can impact:
    • a.           mother’s egg
    • b.           father’s sperm
    • c.           prenatal environment
    • d.           all of the above
  •  4. Head-down delivery is called:
    • a.           unassisted birth
    • b.           rotational birth
    • c.           breech birth
    • d.           vertex birth
  •  5. Seeing the top of the baby’s head is called:
    • a.           corkscrewing
    • b.           crowning
    • c.           cesarean
    • d.           ventral

For the answers: Click Here

[/dropdown_box]

 

DISCUSSION ITEM

  • How many children is too many?

 

 

 

 

 

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