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College & Career

August 3, 2012 by  

graduation day

Decisions, decisions, decisions.

College is often the first non-supervised young adults get. They are on their own, mostly so. Some choose to drop out of college, others don’t start. But everyone gives a lot of tentative thought to what they want do for a living.

Here’s what is included in this lesson:

  • Vocational choice theories
  • Problem solving
  • Decision making
  • Cognitive bias
  • Schizophrenia
  • Disability

Read chapter 13 of Berk’s Development Thru The Lifespan

Here are the resources you need:

CLUSTER

SLIDES

TERMS

[dropdown_box expand_text=” Terms To Know” show_more=”More” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • acquisition
  • aesthetic (artistic) environment
  • age-graded stages
  • agitation
  • alternatives
  • ambiguous situations
  • antipsychotic drugs
  • attribution effect
  • availability bias
  • basal metabolic rate (BMR) = amount of energy your body expends daily
  • behavior
  • biological aging, or senescence = theory of aging, cells can infinitely divide
  • bystander effect
  • capacity
  • capacity stage
  • cognitive bias
  • cognitive process
  • cognitive-affective complexity = as adults mature, integrate thinking & emotion into complex structure
  • commitment
  • commitment within relativistic thinking = synthesize contradictions, living with opposing views
  • context
  • conventional environment
  • correspondence bias
  • cost-benefit analysis
  • course adjustment
  • cross-linkage theory of aging = genetic theory of aging, compounds interfere with normal cell growth
  • crystallization stage
  • decision making
  • decline stage
  • deliberative reasoning
  • delusions
  • diagnosis
  • diffusion of responsibility
  • disability
  • disorganized thinking
  • dispositional explanation
  • dualistic thinking = young children, divide into good-bad categories, in contrast to realistic,
  • enterprising environment
  • episodes
  • epistemic cognition = thinking about how knowledge is discovered
  • establishment stage
  • expertise = acquiring mastery and skills
  • exploration stage
  • fantasy
  • fantasy period = childish vocational choices; want to be a fireman and a Nun
  • fantasy stage
  • finite set
  • flat affect
  • flow
  • free radicals = odd number of electrons on oxygen atoms, cause of cell damage, countered by antioxidants
  • fundamental attribution error
  • Ginzberg, Eli
  • growth stage
  • hallucinations
  • Havighurst, Robert
  • high stakes
  • Holland, John
  • identification
  • incidence
  • influences
  • information overload
  • intellectual environment
  • interest
  • interest stage
  • lack of fluid speech
  • lack of initiative
  • lack of persistence
  • lack of pleasure
  • maintenance stage
  • negative symptoms
  • nonsense speech
  • occupational environments
  • personality
  • positive symptoms
  • postformal thought = integrates emotion and thought; hot cognition
  • pragmatic thought = use logic to solve real world problems
  • premenstrual syndrome (PMS) = symptoms during last half of menses, varies between women
  • problem solving steps
  • productive stage
  • pros & cons
  • range of severity
  • rational choice theory
  • realistic choice
  • realistic environment
  • realistic period = late teens & early 20’s, vocational choices less idealistic
  • reduction
  • reiterative process
  • relativistic thinking = ability to adjust “truth” within contexts
  • schizophrenia
  • selection
  • self-serving bias
  • side effects
  • situational explanation
  • social environment
  • specification stage
  • stabilization
  • Super, Donald
  • symptoms
  • telomeres = keep chromosome ends from fusing together when cells divide
  • tentative
  • tentative choice
  • tentative period = vocational choices as teens, subject to change
  • terminal problem
  • thought blocking
  • thought disorders
  • time pressures
  • transition
  • trial stage
  • unusual facial expressions
  • value stage
  • vocational
  • vocational choice theory
  • vocational theories

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NOTES

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Notes” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • Decision Making
    • Cognitive process
    • Something we do often
    • Difficult to define
    • Involves
      • Alternatives (finite set)
      • Reduction
      • Selection
      • Commitment
      • Behavior
    • Context
      • Needs, preferences & values
      • Interactive with environment; course adjustment
    • Both
      • Continuous reiterative process
      • Terminal problem solving task
    • Irrational?
      • Unstated assumptions & values
      • Occurs too fast to see process
      • Don’t track process, just results
    • Rational
      • Rational Choice Theory
        • Cost-benefit analysis
        • Pros & cons
    • Both deliberative & flow
      • Careful planning while in cave
      • Quick adaptation when lion is chasing you
      • Ambiguous situations
      • Time pressures
      • High stakes
    • Tangen’s 6 Steps of Prob. Solving
      • Where am I now
      • Where do I want to be
      • How do I get from here to there
      • Will this work
      • Try it out
      • Repeat
    • Important factors
      • Information Overload
      • Trying to reach multiple goals
    • Making Decisions
      • Given
        • 50% chance of winning $20
        • 10% chance of winning $10
        • Which will people choose
    • Cognitive Bias
      • Availability bias
        • Rate easily recalled items as occurring more frequently
        • Read a lot of success stories think they happen more often
      • Bystander Effect
        • When others are present, less likely to help
        • Diffusion of responsibility
      • Fundamental Attribution Error
        • AKA, Correspondence Bias
        • AKA, Attribution Effect
        • We prefer dispositional explanations
          • Overvalue personality reasons
          • Undervalue situation reasons
        • You screw up, you’re a bad person
        • Waiter is rude to you
          • Dispositional Explanation
            • Mean, nasty person
            • Always this way
          • Situational Explanation
            • Having a bad day
            • Car wouldn’t start
            • Wife left him
      • Self-Serving Bias
        • Take credit for our success
          • All hard work
          • Self-made
          • All me
        • Failures are caused by external events
  • Vocational Theories
    • Choice is thought to be 1 time
      • Pick a career & stick with it
    • Age-graded
      • Everyone goes though at same time and in same order
    • 1. Eli Ginzberg
      • 3 stages
      • 1. Fantasy stage
        • What parents want
        • What want to be when 7 yrs old
      • 2. Tentative choice (11-16 yrs)
        • A. Interest Stage
        • B. Capacity Stage
        • C. Value Stage
      • 3. Realistic choice (17+)
        • A. Exploration Stage
        • B. Crystallization Stage
        • C. Specification Stage
    • 2. Robert Havighurst
      • Age-graded stages:
      • Identification (5-10)
      • Acquisition (11-15)
      • Vocational (16-25)
      • Productive Stage (26-40; 41-70)
    • 3. Donald Super
      • 5 stages:
      • 1. Growth
        • A. Fantasy (4-10 yrs)
        • B. Interest (11-12 yrs)
        • C. Capacity (13-14 yrs)
      • 2. Exploration (15-24)
        • A. Tentative (15-17 yrs)
        • B. Transition (18-21 yrs)
        • C. Trial stage (22-24 yrs)
      • 3. Establishment (25-40)
        • A. Trial stage (25-30 yrs)
        • B. Stabilization (30-40 yrs)
      • 4. Maintenance (40-64)
      • 5. Decline (65+)
    • 4. John Holland
      • Vocational Choice Theory
        • Influences teach you to behave in certain way in particular situations
        • Personality
      • Influences include:
        • Heredity
        • Culture & Civilization
        • Friends & parents
        • Matured person
        • Social status
      • Interaction of environment
      • Choose occupational environment where feel most comfortable
        • Who like to hang out with
        • How see yourself
      • 6 environments:
        • Intellectual
        • Aesthetic (artistic)
        • Realistic
        • Social
        • Conventional
        • Enterprising
      • Richard Bolles: What Color Is Your Parachute?
  • Disability
    • Affect ability to work
    • Mobility & travel
    • Sit up straight
    • Time on task
    • Length of day
    • Lack of privacy
    • Deadlines
  • Schizophrenia
    • “The Schizophrenias”
    • 1% incidence
    • Slightly more common in men
    • Starts as teens or early adult
    • Typical onset 16 to 30
      • Uncommon onset over 45
    • Symptoms vary; seem OK until share thoughts
    • Episodes
      • Symptoms come & go
      • Typical: not more than 6 weeks
      • Hallucinations last a few days; feel agitated
      • Delusions last a few months
    • Range of severity
      • Hospitalized
      • Meaningful lives in communities
    • 1. What you don’t do diagnosis
      • Negative symptoms
      • Similar to drug abuse
      • Similar to brain damage
        • Don’t feel happy
        • Lack of pleasure
        • Don’t feel deeply
        • Flat affect
          • Monotonous voice
          • Face immobile
        • Don’t look normal
          • Can’t control eye movements
          • Unusual facial expressions
        • Don’t take care of yourself
        • Lack initiative & planning
          • Poor hygiene
        • Don’t follow through on tasks
          • Lack of persistence
        • Don’t talk normal
          • Lack fluidity
    • 2. What you do diagnosis
      • Not schizophrenia without them
      • Positive symptoms
      • Delusions
        • TV sends special messages
        • Martians are controlling me
        • I killed someone
        • I am a king
        • People plot against me
      • Hallucinations
        • Hear voices
        • Many at once; confusing
        • See things not there
        • Smell things not there
        • Invisible fingers touch me
      • Thought Disorders
        • Disorganized thinking
        • Thought blocking
        • Rambling nonsense speech
    • Long-term drug treatment
      • Antipsychotic drugs not cure
        • Don’t fully treat condition
        • Don’t work for 1/3 of patients
      • Serious side effects
        • Similar symptoms to Parkinson’s disease
        • Slow movement, lack of facial expression, general weakness

[/dropdown_box]

 

QUIZ

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Quiz” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  •  1. Which is one of Holland’s environments:
    • a.           establishment
    • b.           exploration
    • c.           realistic
    • d.           growth
  • 2. When others are present, you are less likely to help according to the:
    • a.           fundamental attribution error
    • b.           diffusion of responsibility
    • c.           thought blocking
    • d.           availability bias
  • 3.  Which is a positive symptoms of schizophrenia:
    • a.           thoughtfulness
    • b.           alcohol abuse
    • c.           happiness
    • d.           delusions
  • 4. Rambling nonsense speech is an indication of which schizophrenic symptom:
    • a.           conventional thinking
    • b.           aesthetic socialism
    • c.           disturbed thinking
    • d.           thought extension
  • 5. Hallucinations are:
    • a.           hierarchical
    • b.           systematic
    • c.           episodic
    • d.           all of the above

For the answers: Click Here

[/dropdown_box]

 

DISCUSSION ITEM

  • How did you decide to go to college or university?

 

 

 

 

 

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