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Day 10 Notes: Grades 4-6

June 20, 2013 by  

Teams, clubs & peers

Grades 4-6

The end of elementary school is a success-failure story. Sometimes you hit a home run, sometimes you sit on bench.

Let’s try to make an outline:

  • Intelligence
    • IQ
      • To predict school success
        • Good predictor but not perfect
      • Not a measure of ability
      • Measure school skills
        • Ability to sit still
        • Language skills
        • Doesn’t underestimate academic performance of ethnic subjects
    • IQ Myths
      • Folks generally believe indicates
        • 1. genetic differences
        • 2. fundamental brain characteristics
      • Efficiency, neural speed
      • IQ does correlate with socio-econ level
        • Sometimes
    • Race & Intelligence
      • Some studies show IQ dif in Asian, White & Black
        • Racial IQ Gap
        • Only as group data
        • Lots of overlap; individuals from all levels
      • Race & intel. poorly defined
      • Differences are meaningless
    • Environmental Enrichment
      • Deprivation isn’t good
      • During development
        • Thicker cerebrum
        • Dendrite arbors
      • Infancy
        • Games that increase IQ
      • WISC for ages 6-16
    • Unusually low scores
      • Mental Retardation
  • Mental Retardation
    • Used in scientific literature
    • Used in legal settings
    • Retarded:
      • Has a specific meaning
        • slow, delayed, hindered
        • mentally delayed
      • 1895, mentally slow
        • Replaced idiot, moron & imbecile
    • Idiot
      • Not aware of public affairs
      • Idiota = individual, layman
      • Untrained…..un-trainable
    • Henry Goddard, 1910
      • Idiot
        • Thought to be inherited
        • Profoundly retarded
        • Mental age 0-2
        • IQ below 30
      • Imbecile
        • Moderate mental retardation
          • Mental age 3-7
          • IQ 31-49
        • Apparent within year 1-3
        • Speech delays
        • Limited academic potential
          • Need support in school
        • Can learn self care
        • Can learn simple tasks
        • Usually semi-independently
          • Sheltered workshop
          • Live with parents or group home
      • Moron
        • Mildly retarded
        • Mental age 7-10
        • IQ 51-70
    • Mental Retardation
      • Still used for:
      • Qualify for special education $
      • Used in scientific literature
      • Three criteria
        • IQ below 70
        • Before age of 18
        • Limited adaptive behavior
          • Communication, self-help
    • Unknown causes for 50%
    • Known causes
      • Genetics
      • Down syndrome
      • Triple-X syndrome
      • PKU
      • Prenatal environment
      • Fetal alcohol syndrome
      • Rubella
      • Toxins
      • Birth complication
      • Lack of oxygen
    • Meaning of term
      • Learn more slowly than typical
      • Take longer to learn
      • Require more repetition
      • Adapt skills to their level
    • Assumes:
      • Every child is able to learn
      • Late in learning to
      • Sit up, crawl, walk or talk
      • Self-care
      • Doesn’t describe well:
        • Deficits in memory
        • Lack of social inhibition
        • Difficult with problem solving
    • Euphemism Treadmill
      • Eventually becomes an insult
    • Alternative Names
      • Developmental delay
        • Sound better
        • Still means retarded
      • Intellectual disability
        • Not emotional or psychological
        • Traumatic brain injury
        • Lead poisoning
        • Alzheimer’s
      • Mentally challenged individuals
        • Implies can overcome it
      • Special
        • It doesn’t feel special
      • Developmental disability
        • Epilepsy
        • Autism
        • Rett
        • Cerebral palsy
        • Any problem before 18 years
  • ADHD
    • Developmental Disability
    • 3-5% of children (worldwide)
    • 8-10% of school children
    • Chronic disability
      • 30% have problems as adults
    • 2-3x more likely in boys
      • Genetics or bias of teachers?
    • Pathophysiology
      • Unclear
      • Reduction of brain volume
        • Particularly in left prefrontal cortex
      • Also cerebellum?
        • More mature motor development
      • Frontal & temporal lobes
        • Up to 3 years delay
      • Unusually thin right cortex
        • Normal by time were teens
      • Reduced blood circulation
      • Sig. higher concentration of dopamine transporters
      • Maybe lower levels of glucose metabolism
      • “Reward” mechanism only works for ADHD folk when task is inherently motivating
    • Subtypes
      • 1. Hyperactive-impulsive
        • 6+ hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms
        • <6 inattention symptoms
      • 2. Predominantly inattentive
        • 6+ inattentive symptoms
        • >6 hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms
      • 2. Predominantly inattentive
        • Less likely to act out (probs. with children)
          • sit quietly, not pay attention
          • may not notice has ADHD
      • 3. Hyperactive-impulsive & inattentive
        • 6+ inattention
        • 6+ hyperactivity-impulsivity
        • Most common type in children
    • No cure
      • Treat symptoms
      • Can be successful in school & life
    • Diagnosis
      • Must have symptoms for 6 or more months
    • Inattention:
      • Easily distracted
      • Miss details
      • Forget things
      • Frequently switch from activities
      • Difficulty focusing on one thing
      • Easily bored unless doing something enjoyable
      • Difficulty organizing
      • Difficulty completing tasks
      • Trouble completing homework assignments
      • Often losing things
      • Daydreaming
      • Easily confused
      • Difficulty following instructions
    • Hyperactivity:
      • Fidget and squirm in their seats
      • Talk nonstop
      • Run around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight
      • Hard to sit still (dinner, school, story time)
      • Constantly in motion
      • Difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities
    • Impulsivity
      • Can’t wait turns in games
      • Want everything now
      • Interrupt conversations
      • Impatient
      • Blurt out comments, emotions
      • No regard for consequences
    • Diagnosis Difficulties
      • Can miss inattentive symptoms because quiet and less likely to act out
      • Sit quietly and seem to work
      • Get along better than other ADHD kids
      • Can think hyperactive and impulsive have emotional or disciplinary problems
    • Causes
      • Genetics
      • Thinner brain tissue
        • Not permanent
        • Grows thick as get older
      • Environmental factors
        • Smoking & alcohol during pregnancy
        • Exposure to high levels of lead
      • Brain injuries
        • Similar symptoms to ADHD
        • Brain injuries are common in ADHD kids
      • Sugar
        • Popular belief
        • Not supported by research
        • But if told kids had sugar, rated higher
    • Symptoms appear early in life
      • Often between 3 and 6
      • Often noticed in school
      • Not follow directions
      • Spaced out
    • Treatment
      • Reduce symptoms
      • Medications
        • Stimulants
      • What works for one child might not work for another
        • Side effects
        • Dosage levels

 

 

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