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Day 6 Notes: Infants

June 20, 2013 by  

Nursing, bottles and attachment

Infants

Their heads are big, their brains are making thousands of connections per second, and their bodies are trying to catch up. They have 300 bones and 70 reflexes.

Let’s try to make an outline:

  • Consciousness includes:
    • Perception
    • Reflexes
    • Imprinting
    • Attention
    • Habituation
  • Infant Perception
    • Sensory systems are not fully developed at birth
    • Infant Abilities
    • Vision
      • Acuity
        • Can see about 9 inches away
      • Color
        • Neonates do not see blue well
        • By 2 months: normal color vision
    • Infants prefer:
      • Curves
      • Patterns over plain
    • Infants somewhat prefer:
      • High contrast
      • Larger patterns
      • Many objects
      • Moderate complexity
    • Infants strongly prefer:
      • Faces
        • 5-day old want face parts
        • 2 month old want parts in right places
  • Infants
    • 1st 2 years of life
    • before speech develops
    • cognition is not linguistic
  • Hallmarks
    • Newborn: sleep, eat & poop
      • sleep 16 hr day; eat 6-8 per day
    • 2 months: rollover and coo
      • laugh out loud
    • 3 months: sleep thru night
      • 12 pounds
    • 6 months: sit up & babble
      • baby food
      • “prune” sounds not in language
    • 9 months: crawl & say “dada”
      • maybe “mama”
      • small finely cut table food
    • 1 year: stand up & single words
      • drink from a cup
      • 50% can walk
    • 2 years old: 200 words & walk
      • telegraphic speech
    • 1st grade: 4000 words & share
      • understand 8000 words
  • Reflexes
    • Life-long Reflexes
      • Blink
      • Sneeze
      • Gag
      • Yawn
      • Cough
    • Infantile Reflexes; Not a full list
      • Moro Reflex
        • Startle response
          • to sudden or loud noise
        • Protective reaction
          • fear of falling
        • Arch back
        • Fling out arms-legs
        • Stiffen neck
        • First 4-5 months
      • Babinski’s reflex
        • Stroke foot sole to ball of foot
        • Big toe curls up, others spread out
      • Bauer’s reflex
        • Newborn lying face-down
        • Pressure to soles of feet
        • Crawling movements
        • Until six weeks of age
        • Returns when the baby is learning to crawl
      • Stepping reflex
        • Hold firmly under arms
        • Let one foot touch surface
        • Baby will lift up that foot and bring the other down
        • like walking
        • Lasts about 2 months
        • Doesn’t predict walking
      • Doll eyes (first 2 month)
        • Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR)
        • Stabilizes images on retina
        • Eyes move opposite of head
        • Keeps image centered
      • Rooting Reflex (Until 3-6 months)
        • Stroke cheek, turn toward it
        • Open mouth
        • Make sucking motions
        • Feeding reflex
      • Sucking Reflex (1 month)
        • Suck when touch their mouths
      • Grasping Reflex (3-6 months)
        • Finger against palm, will grab:
        • Quite strong
        • Works on toes too
      • Fencing Reflex (tonic neck)
        • Put baby on back, turn head
        • Baby extends arm & leg on that side
        • Bends opposite arm up
      • Parachute Reflex
        • Starts about 8-10 months
        • Rotating vertical body quickly
        • face forward (as if falling)
        • Arms reach out to break fall
    • Imprinting
      • Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989)
  • Attention
    • Attention & Arousal
    • Reticular formation
      • Regulates sleep-wake
      • Filters incoming irrelevant $
      • Damage decrease arousal
      • Involved in
        • 1. eyes-ears to cerebellum
        • 2. Cardiovascular Control
        • 3. Pain Modulation
        • 4. Sleep & Consciousness
        • 5. Habituation
      • Steady state information
        • Ignore repetitive $
      • Damage
        • Irreversible coma
  • Consciousness is about the same as attention
    • All or nothing
      • At least reporting is
      • Don’t say “partially see that”
    • Reporting
      • Present two $
      • Report A = conscious of it
      • Not report B = unconscious of it
    • Impacted by:
      • $ brightness
      • Motion
      • Relative size
      • “Top-down” processes
  • Inattention blindness
    • Don’t notice change
    • Person behind counter, giant mirror
    • Basketball & gorilla
  • Habituation
    • Consistent stimulation
    • Reticular formation, revisited

 

 

 

 

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