Top

Grades 1-3

August 9, 2012 by  

Childhood illnesses

First day of school: a new adventure.

School is a big change for children and their parents. It’s a fun, exciting, new and scary experience. There are other children to meet, get along with, like-dislike, learn from and play with. There’s classroom learning and playground learning too.

But the biggest changes are going inside the heads of these 6, 7 and 8-year olds. Their ability to think and understand the world change. They acquire the ability to empathize and see things from other perspectives. The essential ways they think and solve problems change.

Seems like only yesterday they got a mind, now they are learning to use it.

Here’s what is included in this lesson:

  • Cognitive reasoning
  • Vygotsky
  • Piaget

Read chapter 8 of Berk’s Development Thru The Lifespan

Here are the resources you need:

CLUSTER

SLIDES

TERMS

[dropdown_box expand_text=” Terms To Know” show_more=”More” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • abstract thought
  • accommodation
  • active learning
  • active participation
  • androgyny = combine male & female characteristics, sexual ambiguity
  • animistic thinking
  • assimilation
  • assisted discovery
  • associative play = playing same game but not together, everyone doing puzzles
  • authoritarian child-rearing style = little warmth, strict rules & punishments
  • authoritative child-rearing style = firm guidelines but flexible rules
  • Bruner, Jerome
  • child-rearing styles = Baummind; strategies & parent-child interaction patterns
  • cognitive development
  • concrete operational stage
  • conservation
  • conservation of area
  • conservation of length
  • conservation of number
  • conservation of substance
  • conservation of volume
  • conservation of weight
  • construction of knowledge
  • cooperative learning
  • cooperative play = taking turns, dynamic interaction with others
  • cross-cultural differences
  • developmental trend
  • discovery learning
  • disequilibrium
  • education
  • egocentric thought
  • equilibrium
  • formal operational stage
  • gender constancy = Kohlberg’s extension of Piaget’s theory, create schema of own gender
  • gender identity = which gender you think you are
  • gender schema theory = learning about gender from the surrounding culture, mental representation
  • gender typing = how girls and boys are supposed to behave
  • guided participation
  • head full of people metaphor
  • holistic theory
  • immediate feedback
  • impatient
  • individual differences
  • induction = rite of passage, celebration of group acceptance
  • initiative versus guilt = Erikson’s 3rd developmental stage, virtue is purpose
  • instructional scaffolding
  • internalization
  • internalized dialogues
  • interpsychological
  • intersubjectivity
  • intrapsychological
  • logical thought
  • magical thinking
  • make-believe play
  • matters of personal choice = not imperatives, matters of preference
  • mentor facilitation
  • mentor-student learning
  • middle childhood
  • moral imperatives = absolute rule of how one must act
  • nonsocial activity = playing by self
  • object permanence
  • parallel play = play next to each other but not with each other
  • peer collaboration
  • peer learning
  • permissive child-rearing style = parenting with indulgence, few performance demands
  • physical aggression = hitting, pushing, threatening physical harm
  • Piaget, Jean
  • preoperational stage
  • private speech
  • private speech
  • proactive aggression = attack, intent to harm
  • prosocial behavior (altruistic behavior) = helping others of your species
  • proximal development
  • psychological control = intrusive manipulation of others
  • reactive aggression = retaliation, intent to harm
  • readiness to learn
  • relational aggression = covert aggression, bullying; shun from group
  • reversibility
  • scaffolding
  • schema
  • self-concept = self-esteem plus other self-judgments
  • self-critical
  • self-directed speech
  • self-esteem = Maslow, Rogers; self-judgment of existential worth or value
  • sensorimotor stage
  • social conventions = generally accepted standard, unwritten law of how to behave
  • social mediation
  • social speech
  • somersaults
  • sympathy = feeling concerned, understanding how someone else feels
  • think like a scientist
  • time out = negative punishment; common parenting technique, not recommended
  • uninvolved child-rearing style = parental style with limited restrictions
  • verbal aggression = threats, taunting, yelling, name calling
  • Vygotsky, Lev
  • zone of proximal development

[/dropdown_box]

NOTES

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Notes” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • Childhood
    • 6-Yr Olds
      • Catch ball with hands
      • Still be somewhat uncoordinated
      • Might learn to ride a bicycle
      • Can move in time w/ music
      • Tie shoe laces
      • Has difficulty making choices
      • Friendships are unstable
      • Needs to win
      • Change rules to suit them
      • More independent
      • Feel less secure
      • Craves affection from parents & teachers
    •  7-Yr Olds
      • Describe similarity of two objects
      • Know days, months & seasons
      • Can do somersaults
      • Can tell time
      • Understand diff btwn right-wrong
      • Want to be perfect
      • Quite self-critical
      • Avoid & withdraw from adults
      • Takes direction well
      • Rarely punished
      • Worries more
      • Waits for turn in activities
      • Better loser; less likely to place blame
    • 8-Yr Olds
      • Wants to know reason for things
      • Thinking is organized & logical
      • Converse almost at adult level
      • Reading is a major interest
      • Excellent finger control
      • Reversibility begins
      • (4+2=6 and 6–2=4)
      • Close friends of same sex
      • Makes friends easily
      • Impatient waiting, wait for special events is torturous
      • Wants to be part of a group (clubs, team sports)
      • Emotions change quickly
      • Motivated by money
  • Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)
    • Born in Orsha, Belarus
      • Then part of Russian Empire
      • Middle class Jewish family
      • Father was banker
      • Attended Moscow State U
    • Jewish Lottery
      • Anti-affirmative action (3%)
    • Holistic theory
      • Cultural-historical
      • Development & culture together
      • Reasoning comes from practical activities in a social context
      • Infants born with basic capabilities
        • perception, attention, & memory
      • During 1st 2 yrs
      • Develop because of direct contact with environment
    • How Develop
      • Child “constructs” knowledge base
      • Manipulates objects in world
      • Asks “why”
      • Culture & social influences answer
        • Socially formed mind
        • Culturally important tasks
      • Children should interact with many people
        • Help direct them
    • Effective social interactions
      • 1. Guided Participation
        • AKA, mentor facilitation
        • Present challenge
        • Provide instruction
        • Offer assistance
        • Encourage & motivate
      • 2. Scaffolding
        • Jerome Bruner’s term; not Vygotsky
        • Instructional scaffolding
        • Provide major support
        • As concept is learned, give less
      • 3. Intersubjectivity
        • 2 minds are better than 1
        • Engage in dialogue, get more than each mind separately
        • Shared understanding
        • Truth within the current context
        • Good examples:
          • Mentor-student
          • Peer learning
        • Better context for internalization
        • Extend each other’s thinking
    • 1st social interpsychological
    • Later individual intrapsychological
    • Proximal Development
      • Zone of Proximal Development
      • Distance between
      • Learn on your own
      • Learn with help
    • Education
      • Have goals & plans
      • Spend time on task
      • Individualization of process
      • Each person different
      • At different point in life
    • Principles
      • Provide immediate feedback 1:1
      • Active participation
      • Assisted discovery
      • Peer collaboration
      • Cooperative learning
    • Arrange tasks
      • Can handle by self
      • Can handle with assistance
    • Make-believe play is ideal context for cognitive development
    • Developmental Trend
      • All mental functions have external or social origins
      • Move from social to egocentric
      • Start social, move to private
      • Social mediation – interaction between mentor & learner
      • Private speech – self dialogue
    • Self-Directed Speech
      • Talk out load to self
      • Talk to self as to others
      • Used when
      • Confused
      • Make mistake
      • Solve problem
    • Private Speech
      • Silent self-directed speech
      • Learn to silently talk to self
      • Internalized dialogues
      • “Head full of people” metaphor
  • Summary of Vygotsky
    • Social to private
    • Follow own route
    • Assisted discovery
    • Relies heavily on language
  • Follow-up
    • Difficult to determine how much verbalization needed
    • Direct observation & practice?
      • Canoeing in Micronesia
      • Weaving in Guatemala
    • Cross-cultural differences
      • Getting dressed, use of toys
    • Middle-SES families
    • Turkey & US
      • Parents verbally instruct
      • Like school teaching
    • Mayan & Indian families
      • Children expected to observe
      • Not instructed
  • Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
    • 3 months older than Vygotsy
    • Born in Neuchâte, Switzerland
      • French mother; Swiss father (professor of medieval literature)
      • After college, moved to France
    • Helped Alfred Binet develop IQ test
      • Interested in why children consistently gave wrong answers
    • Cognitive Development
      • How children use experience to develop understanding of the world
    • 4 Stages
    • 1. Sensorimotor stage
      • Birth to 2 years
      • Low competence in use of:
      • images, language & symbols
      • Develops object permanence
      • Believe disappear is not exist
      • Learn objects & people still exist, even if hidden
      • Peek-a-boo
    • 2. Preoperational stage
      • 2-7 years old
      • Egocentric thought
      • Child views world solely from own perspective
      • Magical thinking
      • Animistic thinking
        • objects have intentions; moon is following me
      • Assimilation
      • Put everything in one category
      • Learns language
      • Learns conservation
        • Quantity unrelated to appear
        • Number
        • Length
        • Substance
        • Substance (unroll)
        • Volume
        • Area
        • Weight
    • 3. Concrete operational stage
      • 7 to 12 years
      • Logical thought
      • Loss of egocentrism
      • Accommodation
      • Break into smaller categories
    • 4. Formal operational stage
      • 12 years to adulthood
      • Abstract thought
      • Thinking like a scientist
  • Piaget & Education
    • Discovery learning
    • Active learning
    • Readiness to learn
    • Individual differences
    • Schema
  • Piaget Summary
    • Think differently than adults
    • Different structures (schemes)
    • Learn from 3 A’s:
      • Environmental Adaptation
        • Repeated drop spoon
      • Assimilation
        • More info on current cards
      • Accommodation
        • More cards
  • Processes
    • Equilibrium
      • Comfortable steady state
      • Use assimilation
    • Disequilibrium
      • Uncomfortable
      • Use accommodation
    • Culture impacts cognitive develop
    • Stages are in the right order
  • Criticisms
    • Based on his children
    • Always trust data
      • Question interpretations
    • Young infants know basic physics
      • Objects can’t move thru objects
      • Drop something, it falls
    • Can be taught higher stage tasks
    • Children acquire skills sooner
      • Object permanence by 3½ month
      • Solve by analogy by 1 year
      • Limited by how ask questions
  • Piaget vs Vygotsky
    • Vygotsky
      • Children go from “social speech” to inner egocentric speech
    • Piaget
      • Children go from personal dialogue to social speech

[/dropdown_box]

 

 QUIZ

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Quiz” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • 1. “Who has more rocket fuel” is a task for testing ____________.
    • a.       conservation of cognition
    • b.       conservation of volume
    • c.        conservation of energy
    • d.       conservation of space
  •  2. Piaget based his theory on his observations of:
    • a.       English children
    • b.       his own children
    • c.        autistic children
    • d.       hospital patients
  •  3. Which one of Vygotsky’s stages of cognitive development:
    • a.       concrete operational
    • b.       formal operational
    • c.        preoperational
    • d.       none of the above
  •  4. The distance between what you can learn on your own and what you can learn with help is called the:
    • a.       intercept of nurture and nature
    • b.       zone of proximal development
    • c.        center of mediated learning
    • d.       area of formal operations
  •  5. Adding more file cards of information to you mind is:
    • a.       accommodation
    • b.       crystallization
    • c.        assimilation
    • d.       innovation

For the answers: Click Here

[/dropdown_box]

 

DISCUSSION ITEM

  • What were your after-school child care arrangements when you were young?

 

 

 

 

 

Comments

Feel free to leave a comment...
and oh, if you want a pic to show with your comment, go get a gravatar!





Bottom