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Grades 4-6

August 7, 2012 by  

Teams, clubs & peers

Personal loneliness & team success.

The end of elementary school is a success-failure story. Sometimes you hit a home run, sometimes you sit on bench. Grades 4-6 require more teamwork, more flexibility and more thinking. School becomes more difficult and grades are taken more seriously. People worry that your current performance will be Here’s what is included in this lesson:

  • IQ
  • intelligence
  • multiple intelligences
  • learning disabilities
  • mental retardation
  • ADHD
  • gifted

Read chapter 9 of Berk’s Development Thru The Lifespan Here are the resources you need:

CLUSTER

SLIDES

TERMS

[dropdown_box expand_text=” Terms To Know” show_more=”More” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • ability to sit still
  • adaptive behavior
  • ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder)
  • birth complication
  • brain injuries
  • chronic disability
  • cognitive maps = mental maps (find way through maze), represent & organize information
  • cognitive self-regulation = metacognition, monitoring and control of mental strategies
  • concrete operational stage = Piaget’s stage for
  • constructivist classroom = less lecture, more self-directed learning & task sequences
  • convergent thinking = rewarded for interconnecting ideas; thought to increase problem solving
  • cooperative learning = facilitated learning using labs, problem solving tasks and groups
  • creativity = generating new ideas and products
  • daydreaming
  • developmental delay
  • developmental disability
  • diagnosis
  • difficulty organizing
  • divergent thinking = rewarded for new ideas; thought to increase creativity
  • dominance hierarchy = hierarchical structure of social or peer group
  • dosage levels
  • dynamic assessment = Vygotsky; learn-assess-learn-asses
  • easily distracted
  • educational self-fulfilling prophecies
  • elaboration = adding details to make item more memorable; more time equals deeper processing
  • emotional intelligence = knowledge and awareness of how you feel
  • environmental enrichment
  • environmental factors
  • euphemism treadmill
  • genetic differences
  • genetics
  • gifted = intellectually more advanced, opposite end of normal curve from mental retardation
  • Goddard, Henry
  • hyperactive-impulsive
  • hyperactive-impulsive & inattentive
  • hyperactivity
  • hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms
  • idiot
  • idiota
  • imbecile
  • impatient
  • impulsivity
  • inattention
  • inattention symptoms
  • inclusive classrooms = special education students are included in general classroom setting
  • intellectual disability
  • intelligence
  • IQ
  • IQ myths
  • learning disabilities = significant problems with learning or school
  • medications
  • mental age
  • mental retardation
  • mentally challenged
  • mentally delayed
  • mentally slow
  • mildly retarded
  • moderate mental retardation
  • moron
  • obesity = excess body fat; BMI over 30
  • organization = Piaget’s principle of mental representations, constructing & connecting schemata
  • pathophysiology
  • phonics approach = learn reading by learning sounds
  • predominantly inattentive
  • prenatal environment
  • profoundly retarded
  • racial IQ gap
  • rehearsal = keeping items in working memory by repeating them over and over
  • reversibility = part of Piaget’s concrete operations, order of addition doesn’t matter
  • reward mechanism
  • rough-and-tumble play = active play that includes rolling, wrestling, chasing and laughing
  • school skills
  • school success
  • seriation = part of Piaget’s concrete operations, putting items in order
  • sheltered workshop
  • side effects
  • social-constructivist classroom = less lecture, more small groups & collaborative tasks
  • spaced out
  • special
  • speech delays
  • stereotype threat = perform worse on tasks if situation cues indicate you will confirm a negative stereotype (anxious that you will fail and “prove” stereotype is true
  • stimulants
  • sugar
  • symptoms
  • talent = natural talent or skill
  • theory of multiple intelligences = Gardner’s model, 8 factors: musical, visual, verbal, logical, bodily, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic
  • traditional classroom = multiple students with single teacher at same location
  • transitive inference = inferring from complex interrelated facts
  • traumatic brain injury
  • treatment
  • triarchic theory of successful intelligence: Sternberg’s 3 factor theory: metacognition (executive processing), performance (LTM, doing) and knowledge-acquisition (choosing relevant information).
  • untrained
  • whole-language approach = Chomsky, emphasis on meaning, literature, journaling; not phonics
  • WISC

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NOTES

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Notes” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • Intelligence
    • IQ
      • To predict school success
        • Good predictor but not perfect
      • Not a measure of ability
      • Measure school skills
        • Ability to sit still
        • Language skills
        • Doesn’t underestimate academic performance of ethnic subjects
    • IQ Myths
      • Folks generally believe indicates
        • 1. genetic differences
        • 2. fundamental brain characteristics
      • Efficiency, neural speed
      • IQ does correlate with socio-econ level
        • Sometimes
    • Race & Intelligence
      • Some studies show IQ dif in Asian, White & Black
        • Racial IQ Gap
        • Only as group data
        • Lots of overlap; individuals from all levels
      • Race & intel. poorly defined
      • Differences are meaningless
    • Environmental Enrichment
      • Deprivation isn’t good
      • During development
        • Thicker cerebrum
        • Dendrite arbors
      • Infancy
        • Games that increase IQ
      • WISC for ages 6-16
    • Unusually low scores
      • Mental Retardation
  • Mental Retardation
    • Used in scientific literature
    • Used in legal settings
    • Retarded:
      • Has a specific meaning
        • slow, delayed, hindered
        • mentally delayed
      • 1895, mentally slow
        • Replaced idiot, moron & imbecile
    • Idiot
      • Not aware of public affairs
      • Idiota = individual, layman
      • Untrained…..un-trainable
    • Henry Goddard, 1910
      • Idiot
        • Thought to be inherited
        • Profoundly retarded
        • Mental age 0-2
        • IQ below 30
      • Imbecile
        • Moderate mental retardation
          • Mental age 3-7
          • IQ 31-49
        • Apparent within year 1-3
        • Speech delays
        • Limited academic potential
          • Need support in school
        • Can learn self care
        • Can learn simple tasks
        • Usually semi-independently
          • Sheltered workshop
          • Live with parents or group home
      • Moron
        • Mildly retarded
        • Mental age 7-10
        • IQ 51-70
    • Mental Retardation
      • Still used for:
      • Qualify for special education $
      • Used in scientific literature
      • Three criteria
        • IQ below 70
        • Before age of 18
        • Limited adaptive behavior
          • Communication, self-help
    • Unknown causes for 50%
    • Known causes
      • Genetics
      • Down syndrome
      • Triple-X syndrome
      • PKU
      • Prenatal environment
      • Fetal alcohol syndrome
      • Rubella
      • Toxins
      • Birth complication
      • Lack of oxygen
    • Meaning of term
      • Learn more slowly than typical
      • Take longer to learn
      • Require more repetition
      • Adapt skills to their level
    • Assumes:
      • Every child is able to learn
      • Late in learning to
      • Sit up, crawl, walk or talk
      • Self-care
      • Doesn’t describe well:
        • Deficits in memory
        • Lack of social inhibition
        • Difficult with problem solving
    • Euphemism Treadmill
      • Eventually becomes an insult
    • Alternative Names
      • Developmental delay
        • Sound better
        • Still means retarded
      • Intellectual disability
        • Not emotional or psychological
        • Traumatic brain injury
        • Lead poisoning
        • Alzheimer’s
      • Mentally challenged individuals
        • Implies can overcome it
      • Special
        • It doesn’t feel special
      • Developmental disability
        • Epilepsy
        • Autism
        • Rett
        • Cerebral palsy
        • Any problem before 18 years
  • ADHD
    • Developmental Disability
    • 3-5% of children (worldwide)
    • 8-10% of school children
    • Chronic disability
      • 30% have problems as adults
    • 2-3x more likely in boys
      • Genetics or bias of teachers?
    • Pathophysiology
      • Unclear
      • Reduction of brain volume
        • Particularly in left prefrontal cortex
      • Also cerebellum?
        • More mature motor development
      • Frontal & temporal lobes
        • Up to 3 years delay
      • Unusually thin right cortex
        • Normal by time were teens
      • Reduced blood circulation
      • Sig. higher concentration of dopamine transporters
      • Maybe lower levels of glucose metabolism
      • “Reward” mechanism only works for ADHD folk when task is inherently motivating
    • Subtypes
      • 1. Hyperactive-impulsive
        • 6+ hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms
        • <6 inattention symptoms
      • 2. Predominantly inattentive
        • 6+ inattentive symptoms
        • >6 hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms
      • 2. Predominantly inattentive
        • Less likely to act out (probs. with children)
          • sit quietly, not pay attention
          • may not notice has ADHD
      • 3. Hyperactive-impulsive & inattentive
        • 6+ inattention
        • 6+ hyperactivity-impulsivity
        • Most common type in children
    • No cure
      • Treat symptoms
      • Can be successful in school & life
    • Diagnosis
      • Must have symptoms for 6 or more months
    • Inattention:
      • Easily distracted
      • Miss details
      • Forget things
      • Frequently switch from activities
      • Difficulty focusing on one thing
      • Easily bored unless doing something enjoyable
      • Difficulty organizing
      • Difficulty completing tasks
      • Trouble completing homework assignments
      • Often losing things
      • Daydreaming
      • Easily confused
      • Difficulty following instructions
    • Hyperactivity:
      • Fidget and squirm in their seats
      • Talk nonstop
      • Run around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight
      • Hard to sit still (dinner, school, story time)
      • Constantly in motion
      • Difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities
    • Impulsivity
      • Can’t wait turns in games
      • Want everything now
      • Interrupt conversations
      • Impatient
      • Blurt out comments, emotions
      • No regard for consequences
    • Diagnosis Difficulties
      • Can miss inattentive symptoms because quiet and less likely to act out
      • Sit quietly and seem to work
      • Get along better than other ADHD kids
      • Can think hyperactive and impulsive have emotional or disciplinary problems
    • Causes
      • Genetics
      • Thinner brain tissue
        • Not permanent
        • Grows thick as get older
      • Environmental factors
        • Smoking & alcohol during pregnancy
        • Exposure to high levels of lead
      • Brain injuries
        • Similar symptoms to ADHD
        • Brain injuries are common in ADHD kids
      • Sugar
        • Popular belief
        • Not supported by research
        • But if told kids had sugar, rated higher
    • Symptoms appear early in life
      • Often between 3 and 6
      • Often noticed in school
      • Not follow directions
      • Spaced out
    • Treatment
      • Reduce symptoms
      • Medications
        • Stimulants
      • What works for one child might not work for another
        • Side effects
        • Dosage levels

[/dropdown_box]

QUIZ

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Quiz” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • 1. Historically, what did “idiot” mean?
    • a.           uninvolved
    • b.           incapable
    • c.           damaged
    • d.           broken
  • 2. Which is a developmental disability?
    • a.           cerebral palsy
    • b.           epilepsy
    • c.           autism
    • d.           all of the above
  • 3. ADHD is a:
    • a.           developmental stage
    • b.           transitional phase
    • c.           chronic disorder
    • d.           Stroop effect
  • 4. Who proposed 3 categories of mental retardation:
    • a.           Goddard
    • b.           Stroop
    • c.           Piaget
    • d.           Freud
  • 5. Symptoms of ADHD typically appear between:
    • a.           1-2 years
    • b.           3-6 years
    • c.           7-9 years
    • d.           10-12 years

For the answers: Click Here [/dropdown_box]

DISCUSSION ITEM

  • Should gifted children stay in normal classes or have special programs for them?

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