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Personal Identity

August 4, 2012 by  

Discovering who I am

Who am I?

Humans are good explorers. Sometimes the hardest thing to find is ourselves. Personal identity includes how you experience yourself as a man or woman, how you want to look, how valuable you feel and how much control you believe you have over your own life.

Here’s what is included in this lesson:

  • Sexual differentiation
  • Gender identity
  • Sexual orientation
  • Eating disorders
  • Obesity
  • Anorexia
  • Bulimia

Read chapter 12 of Berk’s Development Thru The Lifespan

Here are the resources you need:

CLUSTER

SLIDES

TERMS

[dropdown_box expand_text=” Terms To Know” show_more=”More” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • anorexia nervosa
  • anxiety
  • anxiety disorders
  • appetite suppressants
  • artificial sugar
  • bad breath & tooth enamel
  • binge-eating
  • binge-purge
  • BMI
  • body checking
  • bone mass density
  • buffet of high-calorie foods
  • bulimia nervosa
  • co-morbidity
  • crash dieting
  • delayed puberty
  • depression
  • distorted body image
  • eating disorders
  • estrogen
  • excessive exercise
  • exercising to exhaustion
  • fasting
  • fat absorption
  • female monkeys
  • fructose
  • gastric bypass surgery
  • gender identity
  • homosexuality
  • hypothermia
  • ideal weight
  • irrational fear of gaining weight
  • laxatives
  • malnutrition
  • menstrual period
  • Müllerian ducts
  • obesity
  • obsessive compulsive (OCD)
  • perfectionism
  • Prader-Willi syndrome
  • prenatal influences
  • purging
  • retarded growth
  • rituals
  • sexual differentiation
  • sexual orientation
  • stomach distension
  • syndromal obesity
  • underweight
  • vas deferens = tube from epididymis to ejaculatory duct
  • vomiting
  • weight loss
  • Wolffian ducts
  • XX
  • XY

 

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NOTES

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Notes” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • Sexual Differentiation
    • Sex differences = biological
      • Begins with chromosomes
      • Female = XX
      • Males = XY
    • Influenced prenatally by hormones
      • Start with same anatomy
      • Müllerian ducts
        • Lead to female internals
      • Wolffian ducts
        • Lead to male internals
    • Male (XY)
      • Wolffian ducts develop into:
        • seminal vesicles
        • store semen
        • vas deferens
        • duct from testes into penis
      • Müllerian inhibiting hormone
      • Peptide hormone that causes Müllerian ducts degenerate
    • Females (XX)
      • More estrogen than androgens
      • Primitive gonads become ovaries
        • (egg-producing organs)
      • Wolffian ducts degenerate
      • Müllerian ducts develop
      • Estrogen
    • Childhood Behavior
      • 3-8 months old
      • Show preference for toys
        • Girls look at dolls more
        • Boys look at dolls & trucks equally
      • Monkeys
        • Male monkeys play with trucks & balls more
        • Female monkeys play with dolls
      • Female monkeys
        • Prenatal injections of testosterone
        • After born, play more like boys
        • Activating Effects of Hormones
        • Change behav. by enhancing $
        • Testosterone need for male sexual arousal
        • Estrogens increase sensitivity of pudendal nerve
    • How identified sexually
      • What called (male-female)
  • Gender Identity
    • Gender differences = thinking
    • Private sense of own gender
    • Experience self: man or woman
    • Personal view might not match society’s gender category
  • Sexual Orientation
    • Behavioral definition
      • Who have sex with
    • Conceptual definition
      • Who want to have sex with
    • Genetics & Homosexuality
      • Highest in monozygotic twins
      • Lower in dizygotic twins
      • Still lower in siblings
      • Higher incidence among maternal relatives
    • Prenatal Influences
      • Lowest in oldest sons
      • More older brothers, more gay
        • Mother’s immune system can react against a protein in 1st son
        • Attacks subsequent sons more
    • Not an arbitrary decision
      • Integral part of person
      • Homosexuality is a shift toward
        • In some aspects, not others
  • Eating Disorders
    • Obesity
      • Obesity in rats
        • “Buffet” of high-calorie foods
        • Can’t pass up options
        • Become obese
        • Lose interest in other rewards
      • Fat is not happy
        • Small correlation between obesity and mood
        • Obesity not caused by depression
      • Prenatal
        • high-fat diet before
        • increase appetite & body weight
      • Genetics & Body Weight
      • Danish study
        • weights of adopted children
        • correlate with biological parents
      • Genetic or prenatal
        • Specific genes
        • Mutated gene for melanocortin can cause obesity
      • Syndromal obesity
        • From medical condition
          • Prader-Willi syndrome
            • Genetic disorder
            • Leads to obesity
            • High levels of ghrelin (peptide)
    • Weight Loss
      • Dieting rarely effective alone
      • Maintaining diet
      • Implement small changes
      • 20-40% success (2 years)
      • Increasing exercise
      • Decreasing eating
      • Fructose doesn’t $ satiety path
      • Non-diet drinks high in fructose
      • Artificial sugars cause body to unlearn association between “sweet” & calories?
    • Weight Loss Medicines
      • Sibutramine (Meridia)
        • Appetite suppressants
      • Orlistat (Xenical)
        • Block fat absorption
      • Gastric bypass surgery
        • Removes part of stomach
        • Smaller meals produce satiety
  • Bulimia Nervosa
    • Difficult to identify
      • Not usually underweight
      • Mask symptoms to hide guilt & shame
    • 4 Classic Symptoms
      • 1. Repeated binge-eating
        • Eating until painfully full
        • Weight goes up & down
        • Feel like can’t stop
      • 2. Countering binge with:
        • Exercising to exhaustion
        • Laxatives
        • Vomiting
        • Fasting
      • 3. Binge-Purge 2+x week for 3 months
      • 4. Self-judging weight & body
    • Repeated sessions
    • Overeating followed by guilt
    • Includes
      • Excessive exercise
      • Crash dieting
      • Purging
    • Results in:
      • Lower levels of CCK (hormone)
      • Increased ghrelin (hormone)
      • Bad breath & tooth enamel
      • Altered NT transmitters
        • regulate eating
    • Most suffer with depression
    • Similar to drug addiction
    • Food activates basal ganglia (nucleus accumbens)
  • Anorexia Nervosa
    • Not the same as bulimia
    • Both: distorted body image
    • 50% anorexics become bulimic
      • Bulimic to anorexia is uncommon
    • Classic Symptoms
      • Irrational fear of gaining weight
      • 15% below ideal weight; BMI of 17.5 or less
      • Missed 3 consecutive menstrual periods
    • Typically
      • More often in women
      • Obsessive compulsive
      • Perfectionism
      • Control
    • Symptoms
      • Dizziness
      • Headaches
      • Drowsiness
      • Lack of energy
    • Food restriction
      • causes metabolic problems
      • causes hormonal disorders
    • Feel hunger but don’t eat
    • Average 600-800 calories/day
    • Includes:
      • Inappropriate eating habits
      • Obsession with being thin
      • View self as too fat
      • Even when underweight
    • Repetitive behaviors
      • Body checking
        • weighing, measuring, checking mirror
      • Rituals
        • Cut food into tiny bites
        • Won’t eat with others
        • Excessive exercise
    • At extreme
      • Soft-fine hair on face & body
      • Like a fetus
      • Stomach distension
      • Starving children
      • Swollen cheeks
      • Saliva glands swell from vomit
      • Cold all the time (hypothermia)
    • Onset in adolescence
      • Seems to be getting younger
      • Was 17, now 13
    • Any race, SES or culture
    • 10x more likely in girls
    • Co-morbidity
      • 60% have depression
      • 25% have OCD
      • 25% have anxiety disorders
    • With purging
      • Substance abuse
        • 15-20x more likely
      • Anxiety (no OCD)
        • 3x more likely
    • Medical effects
      • Retarded Growth (height)
      • Low bone mass density
      • Delayed puberty
      • Liver problems (malnutrition)
      • Heart disease (arrhythmia)
      • Seizures & tremors
      • Death (about 5%)
        • Starvation & suicide

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 QUIZ

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  •  1. Even the best weight loss programs have a 2 yr success rate of:
    • a.           10-20%
    • b.           20-40%
    • c.           40-60%
    • d.           70%+
  • 2. Which is a classic symptom of anorexia:
    • a.           compensating binge with excessive exercise
    • b.           binge-purge 2+x wks for 3 mo
    • c.           15% below ideal weight
    • d.           repeated binge-eating
  • 3. Anorexia has comorbidity with:
    • a.           depression
    • b.           anxiety
    • c.           OCD
    • d.           all of the above
  • 4. Which lead to female internal organs:
    • a.           Müllerian ducts
    • b.           Kohlerian ducts
    • c.           Wolffian ducts
    • d.           Donald ducts
  • 5. Your private sense of gender (experience self as man or woman) is:
    • a.           cognitive centralism
    • b.           sexual orientation
    • c.           gender identity
    • d.           personification

For the answers: Click Here

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DISCUSSION ITEM

  • How much does how you look impact how you feel about yourself?

 

 

 

 

 

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