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Toddlers

August 10, 2012 by  

Toilet training & toddlers

Gaining control: today the toilet, tomorrow the world.

There is no one who has more fun and more pain than a toddler. And, remarkably, the highs and lows are only microseconds apart. They’re up, they’re down, and back up again. What a fascinating age.

Here’s what is included in this lesson:

  • Language development
  • Strange Situation task
  • Attachment
  • Hallmarks
  • Autism

Read chapter 6 of Berk’s Development Thru The Lifespan

Here are the resources you need:

CLUSTER

SLIDES

TERMS

[dropdown_box expand_text=” Terms To Know” show_more=”More” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • Ainsworth, Mary
  • Asperger’s syndrome
  • attachment
  • attachment figure
  • Attachment Q-Sort = sort descriptions of child into categories of very-like to very-unlike
  • attachment-in-making phase
  • authoritarian parenting
  • authoritative parenting
  • autism
  • autonomy versus shame and doubt = Erikson’s 2nd stage of development; virtue is will
  • avoidant attachment
  • babbling
  • basic emotions = hypothetical list of simple emotions that are biologically encoded
  • basic trust versus mistrust = Erikson’s 1st stage of development; virtue is hope
  • Bowlby, John
  • caregiver
  • casein-free diet
  • categorical self = Turner, assigning yourself to one of many levels of abstraction
  • child-directed speech
  • childhood disintegrative disorder
  • chromosomal abnormalities
  • clear-cut attachment phase
  • compliance = immediate obedience, not to be confused with respect
  • compliance category = aware of parent, can follow simple instructions
  • comprehension
  • consonant sounds
  • conversational turn-taking
  • coo
  • delay of gratification = ability to delay action for larger reward
  • demanding
  • developmental disorder
  • diet
  • difficult child = Thomas & Chase; 10%, don’t like change, loud disapproval
  • disorganized/disoriented attachment
  • easy child = Thomas & Chase; 40%, cheerful, adapts easily
  • effortful control = ability to self-regulate temperament
  • emotional self-regulation = ability to adjust emotional response to environment
  • empathy
  • ethological theory of attachment
  • first sounds
  • genetics
  • gluten-free diet
  • goodness-of-fit model = Thomas & Chase; adapt environment to match child
  • holophrases
  • indifferent parenting
  • inhibited, or shy, child = withdraw from novel stimuli, negative response
  • interactional synchrony = caregiver & baby respond to each other’s emotional cues
  • internal working model = expectations of availability of help
  • itchy clothes
  • joint attention
  • language abnormalities
  • language development
  • mercury poisoning
  • milestones
  • mirror neurons
  • multiple attachments
  • naming
  • overextensions
  • over-regularization
  • parental control
  • parental styles
  • parental warmth
  • permissive parenting
  • playmate
  • pre-attachment phase
  • pretend play
  • preverbal gestures
  • production
  • pronunciation
  • prune
  • psychoanalytic
  • reciprocal relationship phase
  • requesting
  • resistant attachment
  • Rett syndrome
  • secure attachment
  • secure base = toddlers use familiar people as refuge from explorations
  • self-conscious emotions = more than basic emotions: shame, pride, guilt, embarrassed
  • self-recognition = see self in mirror or baby in mirror
  • sensitive caregiving = prompt response to infant’s needs
  • separation anxiety = upset when caregiver leaves
  • separation episode
  • single word sentences
  • single words
  • sit up (supported)
  • sleep through night
  • slow-to-warm-up child = Thomas & Chase; 10%, inactive, low-key reactions
  • sociable child (uninhibited child) = approach novel stimuli, positive reaction
  • social interaction
  • social referencing = look at others to see how should react
  • social smile = at 8 weeks, broad grin at parents
  • species specific
  • stand up & single words
  • Strange Situation Task
  • stranger anxiety = at 10 months, afraid of unfamiliar people, warm up to them
  • telegraphic speech
  • temperament = hypothesized biological reactivity, appears early, activity level
  • toddlers
  • two-word phrases
  • underextensions
  • uninhibited child (sociable child) = approach novel stimuli, positive reaction
  • unusual attachment
  • vaccines
  • vocabulary
  • vocabulary spurt
  • wave bye-bye

 

[/dropdown_box]

NOTES

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Notes” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  • Language Development
    • First Sounds
      • 1st Mont
        • Burps, grunts, sneezes et
        • Exercise vocal cord
        • Create dialogue with caregivers
      • 2 Months
        • Coo: primarily responding to “melody” of speech
        • Laugh out loud
        • Able to roll over
      • 3-4 Months
        • Consonant sounds created
        • Buh buh buh buh
        • Dah dah dah dah
        • Sleep through night
      • By 4 months
        • Infants & adults follow each other’s gaze
        • Adults label what is seen
        • Joint attention speeds up language development
      • 6 Months
        • Babbling
        • “prune” sounds not in language
        • Sit up (supported)
        • Baby food
        • Deaf infants fall behind in producing well-formed syllables
      • 8-9 Months
        • Babbling with an accent
        • Crawl & say “dada”
        • maybe “mama”
        • Small finely cut table food
    • Mastering Language
      • Joint Attention
        • Connecting words & things
        • Referent is entire object
        • Not just action
      • 10-12 months
        • Holophrases
        • Single word sentences
        • Naming Mama
        • Requesting Milk
        • Demanding Up!
      • By 1st year
        • Influence behavior of others
        • Use preverbal gestures
        • Some words
        • Infant games show conversational turn-taking
      • 12 months
        • Stand up & single words
        • Drink from a cup
        • 50% can walk
      • 18-24 months
        • Vocabulary spurt
        • Everything has a name
        • Overextensions (dog for any animal)
        • Underextensions (Kitty for family cat only)
    • Two Words At Once
      • Vocabulary builds
      • Slowly from 12 to18 mos.
      • Quickly from 18 to 24 mos.
      • 24 months
        • 200 words
        • Walking
        • Telegraphic speech (2-3 words)
          • Omit nonessentials
          • Daddy shoe
          • More cookie
    • Over-regularization
      • Over applying rules of grammar
      • Plurals and past tenses
      • I holded the rabbit
    • 1st Grade
      • Use 4000 words
      • Understand 8000 words
      • Able to share
      • Toys, food, activities
    • Remember: Comprehension Precedes Production
    • Girls ahead in early vocabulary
    • Parental Speech
      • Child-directed speech (CDS)
        • Aids language development
        • Children prefer CDS
        • Speak in short sentences
        • Use exaggerated expression
        • Very clear pronunciation
  • Attachment
    • Observe that:
      • Infants seeks to be close
      • Follow you around
      • Cry when you’re gone
      • May not be species specific
    • Psychoanalytic explanation
      • Freud’s psychosexual theory
      • Assumes
        • Personality formed in 1st 2 yrs
        • Only happens in people
        • Mother is primary care giver
    • John Bowlby’s Ethological Theory of Attachment
      • Emotional tie with mother
      • Strong biological roots
      • 4 Phases
        • 1. Pre-attachment (0-6 weeks)
          • Bond with everyone
        • 2. Attachment-in-making (1½-8mo)
          • Prefer mother’s voice
          • Prefer mother’s face
        • 3. Clear-cut attachment (8-24mo)
        • 4. Reciprocal relationship (18-24+)
    • Measuring Security of Attachment
      • Mary Ainsworth
      • Strange Situation Task
        • 1-2 year olds
      • Procedure
        • 1. Parent-infant shown room
        • 2. Left alone
          • Parent sits, infant explores
        • 3. Stranger enters
          • Talks to parent, sits & reads
          • Approaches infant
          • Parent sneaks out
        • 4. First separation episode
          • Stranger tries to interest child in toys
          • Not block searching for Mom
        • 5. Parent enters
          • Greets & comforts infant
      • Second separation episode:
        • Parent-child together
        • Mother leaves
        • Infant is alone
        • Stranger enters & comforts
        • Mother enters & comforts
    • Conclusions
      • Secure attachment
        • 65% of North American infants
        • Use parent as secure base
        • May or may not cry
        • Prefer parent over stranger
        • At reunion, seek contact
      • Avoidant attachment
        • 20% of North American infants
        • Unresponsive to parent
        • Not distressed by separation
        • React to stranger same way
        • Fail to cling
      • Resistant attachment
        • 10-15% of infants
        • Seeks closeness, fail to explore
        • Upon return, angry, resistant, hitting & pushing
        • Not easily comforted
      • Disorganized/Disoriented
        • 5-10% of infants
        • Show great insecurity
        • Confused-contradictory behavior
        • Dazed facial expression
    • Criticisms
      • Categories add up to 110%?
    • Design Problems:
      • Mothers wanted to intro child to toys & room more
      • Strangers disliked baby crying
      • Inconsistent response to child
      • Reliability of rating scales varies
  • Parental Style
    • Two components
      • Parental warmth: affection vs. rejection
      • Parental control: discipline vs. unsupervised
    • 4 Parental Styles
    • 1. Authoritative
      • High in both warmth & control
      • Predictable environment
      • Has most positive effects
      • Children do well in school, self-confident, & independent
    • 2. Authoritarian
      • Low in warmth, high in control
      • Controlling & demanding
      • Threats &punishment
      • Children are aggressive
      • Have conduct problems
    • 3. Permissive
      • High in warmth, low in control
      • No structure or predictability
      • Few limits on behaviors
      • Children are impulsive & immature
    • 4. Indifferent
      • Low in both warmth & control
      • Few limits & little attention
      • Children unsocial, disobedient & demanding
  • Multiple Attachments
    • Bowlby believed nfants predisposed to one attachment figure
    • Preference declines by age 3
    • Traditional
    • Mother as caregiver
    • Father as playmate
  • Autism
    • Developmental disorder
      • Diagnosed 1-3 years old
      • Symptoms by 18 months
      • Seek help about 24 months
      • Social & communication skills
    • Symptoms
      • Boys more than girls
      • Difficulty with pretend play
      • Poor social interactions
      • Poor verbal & nonverbal skills
      • Lack of empathy
      • Overly sensitive to $
      • Refuse to wear “itchy” clothes
      • Distress if routines changed
      • Repeated body movements
      • Unusual attachment to objects
      • Vary from moderate to severe
      • Not startle at loud noises
      • Heightened response to sounds
      • Miss language milestones:
      • Babbling by 12 months
      • Wave bye-bye by 12 months
      • Say single words by 16 months
      • 2-word phrases by 24 months (not just echoing)
    • Causes
      • Unknown
      • Genetics
      • Identical twins are much more likely than fraternal twins
      • Relatives more like to have:
        • Language abnormalities
        • Chromosomal abnormalities
      • Diet?
        • Some parents try:
          • Gluten-free diet
          • Casein-free diet (milk-cheese)
      • Mercury poisoning?
      • Inability to properly use vitamins and minerals?
      • Vaccines
        • Not the cause
        • Can take single-dose forms
        • Don’t contain added mercury
      • Mirror Neurons in Autism
        • No empathy
    • Generally includes:
      • Asperger’s (good language skills)
      • Rett syndome (for girls)
      • Childhood disintegrative disorder
      • Learn and then lose skills
      • Atypical (misc.)

 

[/dropdown_box]

QUIZ

[dropdown_box expand_text=” For You” show_more=”Quiz” show_less=”Less” start=”hide”]

  •  1. Who is the “father” of attachment theory?
    • a.           John Bowlby
    • b.           Carl Rogers
    • c.           Albert Ellis
    • d.           Aristotle
  • 2. What are single word sentences:
    • a.           response-demand speech
    • b.           semi-globalizations
    • c.           empathic speech
    • d.           holophrases
  • 3. You should consider autism if a child is not babbling by:
    • a.           3 months
    • b.           6 months
    • c.           9 months
    • d.           1 year
  • 4. When parents and child are looking at the same object it’s:
    • a.           reciprocal attachment
    • b.           insecure attachment
    • c.           heart warming
    • d.           joint attention
  • 5. “I holded the rabbit” is an:
    • a.           emphatic speech
    • b.           underextension
    • c.           overregulation
    • d.           overextension

For the answers: Click Here

[/dropdown_box]

 

DISCUSSION ITEM

  • Do you have any examples of clever or funny things children say?

 

 

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